Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disease in women, with a number of metabolic and reproductive consequences. Obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are prominent metabolic characteristics of PCOS and common factors affecting liver function and generating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Multiple genes involved in the synthesis of androgens, cytokines and IR, as well as acquired factors, such as endocrine disruptors, could associate the etiopathogenesis of PCOS and NAFLD. Besides the high prevalence of PCOS in general population, NAFLD was shown to be a frequent condition in transition periods, such as adolescence and menopause. Although liver biopsy is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing liver damage, its routine use in such a prevalent condition as PCOS can be related to a higher rate of complications. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to diagnose NAFLD using simple and reliable surrogate markers. Recently, fatty liver index and NAFLD fatty liver score analyzed in large cohorts of PCOS women have been shown as accurate markers of liver damage in this metabolically vulnerable population. Lifestyle changes are still the mainstay of the management of NAFLD in PCOS, although prospective randomized controlled clinical studies remain a priority in the field. With regard to medications, metformin may be the drug of choice for treating PCOS patients with NAFLD when pharmacologic therapy is considered. Liraglutide use in obese PCOS has shown favorable effects on the predictors of liver fibrosis. In this review, we aim to summarize the influence of the common risk factors and to discuss the diagnostic approaches and management options for NAFLD in patients with PCOS.
Djuro Macut, Ivana Božić-Antić, Jelica Bjekić-Macut and Konstantinos Tziomalos
Djuro Macut, Svetozar Damjanović, Dimitrios Panidis, Nikolaos Spanos, Biljana Glišić, Milan Petakov, David Rousso, Anargyros Kourtis, Jelica Bjekić and Nataša Milić
Objective: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are assumed to be at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. This study examined the variations in oxidised low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) concentration in relation to insulin levels in young women with PCOS.
Design: Cross-sectional clinical study in tertiary cares research hospitals. A total of 179 women with PCOS (79 overweight) and 56 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined.
Methods: Blood samples were collected in follicular phase of the cycle for the basal glucose, total-, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol, OxLDL, triglycerides, apolipoprotein–A1 (Apo-A1) and B (Apo-B), lipoprotein (a), insulin, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Homeostatic model index (HOMA) and free androgen index (FAI) were determined.
Results: Overweight and normal weight women with PCOS had higher concentrations of OxLDL than their control counterparts (P=0.007 and 0.003 respectively). Both the basal insulin (P=0.003) and HOMA values (P<0.001) were significantly higher in overweight than normal weight patients. Testosterone and FAI were higher in patients than in the respective controls (P<0.001). The only independent predictor of increased OxLDL concentration in normal weight patients was Apo-B-to-Apo-A1 ratio (P<0.001, odds ratio (OR) 6.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–16.4), while in obese PCOS, it was total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P<0.001, OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.6–4.9).
Conclusion: Young normal weight and overweight PCOS women have similarly increased OxLDL levels. Our results may indicate the presence of primary alteration in lipid metabolism in patients with PCOS. To answer the question whether the alteration in LDL particle size can by itself pose a higher cardiovascular risk, a careful follow-up of these women is needed.
Ivana Božić-Antić, Dušan Ilić, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Tamara Bogavac, Danijela Vojnović-Milutinović, Biljana Kastratovic-Kotlica, Nataša Milić, Olivera Stanojlović, Zoran Andrić and Djuro Macut
There are limited data on cardiometabolic risk factors and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) across the different PCOS phenotypes in Caucasian population. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is a clinical surrogate marker that could be used for evaluation of MetS in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to analyze metabolic characteristics and the ability of LAP to predict MetS in different PCOS phenotypes.
Cross-sectional clinical study analyzing 365 women with PCOS divided into four phenotypes according to the ESHRE/ASRM criteria, and 125 healthy BMI-matched controls.
In all subjects, LAP was determined and MetS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Logistic regression and ROC curve analyses were used to determine predictors of MetS in each PCOS phenotype. All analyses were performed with age and BMI adjustment.
All PCOS phenotypes in comparison to controls had higher prevalence of MetS assessed by NCEP-ATP III criteria, and only classic phenotypes when IDF and JIS criteria were used. All phenotypes had the same prevalence of MetS irrespective of used definition. LAP and exhibited the highest diagnostic accuracy and was an independent predictor of MetS in all phenotypes.
LAP is an independent and accurate clinical determinant of MetS in all PCOS phenotypes in our Caucasian population. All PCOS phenotypes, including non-classic ones, are metabolically challenged and with cardiovascular risk, particularly phenotype B.