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Thomas I Hewat, Daphne Yau, Joseph C S Jerome, Thomas W Laver, Jayne A L Houghton, Beverley M Shields, Sarah E Flanagan, and Kashyap A Patel


Mutations in the KATP channel genes, ABCC8 and KCNJ11, are the most common cause of congenital hyperinsulinism. The diagnosis of KATP-hyperinsulinism is important for the clinical management of the condition. We aimed to determine the clinical features that help to identify KATP-hyperinsulinism at diagnosis.


We studied 761 individuals with KATP-hyperinsulinism and 862 probands with hyperinsulinism of unknown aetiology diagnosed before 6 months of age. All were referred as part of routine clinical care.


We compared the clinical features of KATP-hyperinsulinism and unknown hyperinsulinism cases. We performed logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify the features that predict KATP-hyperinsulinism.


Higher birth weight, diazoxide unresponsiveness and diagnosis in the first week of life were independently associated with KATP-hyperinsulinism (adjusted odds ratio: 4.5 (95% CI: 3.4–5.9), 0.09 (0.06–0.13) and 3.3 (2.0–5.0) respectively). Birth weight and diazoxide unresponsiveness were additive and highly discriminatory for identifying KATP-hyperinsulinism (ROC area under the curve for birth weight 0.80, diazoxide responsiveness 0.77, and together 0.88, 95% CI: 0.85–0.90). In this study, 86% born large for gestation and 78% born appropriate for gestation and who did not respond to diazoxide treatment had KATP-hyperinsulinism. In contrast, of those individuals born small for gestation, none who were diazoxide responsive and only 4% of those who were diazoxide unresponsive had KATP-hyperinsulinism.


Individuals with hyperinsulinism born appropriate or large for gestation and unresponsive to diazoxide treatment are most likely to have an ABCC8 or KCNJ11 mutation. These patients should be prioritised for genetic testing of KATP channel genes.

Open access

Huseyin Demirbilek, Ved Bhushan Arya, Mehmet Nuri Ozbek, Jayne A L Houghton, Riza Taner Baran, Melek Akar, Selahattin Tekes, Heybet Tuzun, Deborah J Mackay, Sarah E Flanagan, Andrew T Hattersley, Sian Ellard, and Khalid Hussain


Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of monogenic diabetes and usually presents in the first 6 months of life. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and molecular genetics of a large Turkish cohort of NDM patients from a single centre and estimate an annual incidence rate of NDM in South-Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

Design and methods

NDM patients presenting to Diyarbakir Children State Hospital between 2010 and 2013, and patients under follow-up with presumed type 1 diabetes mellitus, with onset before 6 months of age were recruited. Molecular genetic analysis was performed.


Twenty-two patients (59% males) were diagnosed with NDM (TNDM-5; PNDM-17). Molecular genetic analysis identified a mutation in 20 (95%) patients who had undergone a mutation analysis. In transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM) patients, the genetic cause included chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (n=3), ABCC8 (n=1) and homozygous INS (n=1). In permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) patients, homozygous GCK (n=6), EIF2AK3 (n=3), PTF1A (n=3), and INS (n=1) and heterozygous KCNJ11 (n=2) mutations were identified. Pancreatic exocrine dysfunction was observed in patients with mutations in the distal PTF1A enhancer. Both patients with a KCNJ11 mutation responded to oral sulphonylurea. A variable phenotype was associated with the homozygous c.-331C>A INS mutation, which was identified in both a PNDM and TNDM patient. The annual incidence of PNDM in South-East Anatolian region of Turkey was one in 48 000 live births.


Homozygous mutations in GCK, EIF2AK3 and the distal enhancer region of PTF1A were the commonest causes of NDM in our cohort. The high rate of detection of a mutation likely reflects the contribution of new genetic techniques (targeted next-generation sequencing) and increased consanguinity within our cohort.