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J. Sandahl Christiansen, H. Ørskov, C. Binder, and K. W. Kastrup


The time course of plasma growth hormone (hGH) levels following sc and im injection of hGH was studied in 12 children with growth hormone deficiency who had received long-term treatment with im injections of highly purified hGH. Also the spontaneous diurnal GH levels in 8 normal children of comparable age were recorded.

Blood samples were obtained during 24 h after im and sc injections of 4 IU/m2 hGH and analysed for immunoreactive hGH. While a median peak value of 160 ng/ml (range 135 to 475 ng/ml) was obtained 2 h after im injection, sc injection resulted in a more sustained elevation reaching 41 ng/ml (range 32 to 51 ng/ml) at 6 h subsiding slowly with a median concentration of 15 ng/ml (range 5–24 ng/ml) persisting after 14 h.

Gel chromatography demonstrated that the hGH immunoreactivity of blood samples obtained as late as 14 h after sc injection had unaltered molecular size.

Seven of the patients were further studied after sc injection of 2 IU/m2 at 20.00 h instead of in the morning. A plasma profile was attained during the night which roughly approximated the average nocturnal plasma pattern of the normal children.

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K. W. Kastrup, J. Sandahl Christiansen, J. Koch Andersen, and H. Ørskov

Abstract. The effect of more frequent (daily) injections of human growth hormone (hGH) on growth rate was studied in 16 growth hormone deficient children (12 boys, 4 girls) during 2 years. All had previously been treated with im injection of hGH 2–3 times weekly and in the majority of the patients a waning growth response was observed.

For a total weekly dose of 12 IU hGH a daily dose of 2 IU was injected sc at night before sleep. This dosage has been shown by us to imitate the average nocturnal hGH profile in plasma.

Growth response on the im treatment was 5.2 ± 1.2 cm/year (sd) in boys and 5.4 ± 0.9 cm/year in girls. A significant increase was seen during the first year of sc treatment to 7.9 ± 2.7 cm in boys and 6.3 ± 2cm in girls. During the second year the growth response was still significantly increased in boys (7.2 ± 1.9 cm). Bone age was more advanced and the period of previous im treatment was longer in girls (6.7 vs 3.6 years) which may be the main cause of the waning second year response (4.7 ±1.3 cm/year). Pubertal development occurred in 9 children during treatment. However, the highest growth rates were not found in these children.

Absence of antibodies against hGH and local reactions at the injection site is evidence of the safety of the treatment, which was very well accepted by the children.

Daily sc injections thus represent an effective alternative to conventional im injections ensuring high acceptance in children with growth hormone deficiency.

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J. Sandahl Christiansen, K. W. Kastrup, K. G. M. M. Alberti, K. E. Petersen, C. Christiansen, and H. Ørskov

Abstract. In a short-term cross-over study the effect of daily sc human growth hormone was compared with that of thrice weekly im treatment. At the end of each 6-week treatment period the 10 growth hormone deficient children were admitted to hospital for evaluation of diurnal plasma levels of hormones and intermediary metabolites. Somatomedin A as well as C levels were higher in 9 of 10 children after sc than after im growth hormone therapy. This may be the basis for previous observations of improved growth after change to sc treatment.

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H.-H. Parving, B. Oxenbøll, P. Aa. Svendsen, J. Sandahl Christiansen, and A. R. Andersen


In an attempt to detect patients at high risk of developing diabetic nephropathy, a longitudinal study of urinary albumin excretion rate (radial immunodiffusion) was carried out in 15 female and 8 male long-term insulin-dependent diabetics without proteinuria (negative Albustix test).

Five females and 3 males had an elevated urinary albumin excretion at the time of screening, mean 115 ± 26 (sd) mg/24 h. Our upper normal range for urinary albumin excretion is ≤ 40 mg/24 h. The 5 patients with the highest albumin excretion subsequently developed persistent albuminuria, 132 → 1007 mg/24 h, P < 0.05, elevated serum creatinine, 83 → 128 μmol/l, P < 0.05, and raised blood pressure, 135/86 → 163/112 mmHg, P < 0.05. One patient developed intermittent albuminuria (positive Albustix test), while the variables in the remaining 2 patients were about the same during the 6 years observation period. Fifteen patients had a normal urinary albumin excretion, mean 17 ± 9 (sd) mg/24 h, at the time of the screening. Intermittent and persistent albuminuria developed in 2 patients, while albumin excretion, serum creatinine, and blood pressure were nearly unchanged in the remaining 13 patients after 6 years.

Our longitudinal study indicates that early detection of patients at high and low risk of developing persistent proteinuria i.e. diabetic nephropathy, is possible by using a sensitive method for measuring urinary albumin excretion.

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Jørn Müller, Jørgen Starup, J Sandahl Christiansen, Jens OL Jøgensen, Anders Juul, and Niels E Skakkebaek

Müller J, Starup J, Christiansen JS, Jørgensen JOL, Juul A, Skakkebaek NE, Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman. Eur J Endocrinol 1995;132:727–9. ISSN 0804–4643

Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) during pregnancy, as well as birth weight and hormone levels after delivery in a 2 5-year-old woman with idiopathic, isolated GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 7 years. As part of a clinical trial, the patient was treated with 2 IU/M2 GH for a period of 5 years. At this time she became pregnant after donor insemination. The GH treatment was continued until variant GH production from the placenta was evident. Serum levels of GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured monthly during pregnancy after 3 days off GH therapy. Abdominal ultrasound was performed five times. Hormonal levels were measured immediately after delivery and during the following days. Serum GH and IGF-I levels increased during the second half of pregnancy: serum IGFBP-3 remained constant throughout pregnancy at a normal level. Serum levels of GH fell within 1 h after delivery, and levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decreased into the range of GH-deficient women 4 days after. The fetal biparietal diameter increased normally, and birthweight was 3.564kg, length 52 cm. No adverse events were recorded. We conclude that the role of GH replacement during pregnancy of GH-deficient women should be investigated further.

Jørn Müller, Department of Growth and Reproduction, GR 5064, Rigshospitalet, 9 Blegdamsvej, DK-2100 Copenhagen ø, Denmark

Open access

Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Philippe F Backeljauw, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret C S Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Pierre Chatelain, Catherine S Choong, David R Clemmons, Laurie E Cohen, Pinchas Cohen, Jan Frystyk, Adda Grimberg, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Morey W Haymond, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Jeff M P Holly, Reiko Horikawa, Charlotte Höybye, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anders Juul, Laurence Katznelson, John J Kopchick, K O Lee, Kuk-Wha Lee, Xiaoping Luo, Shlomo Melmed, Bradley S Miller, Madhusmita Misra, Vera Popovic, Ron G Rosenfeld, Judith Ross, Richard J Ross, Paul Saenger, Christian J Strasburger, Michael O Thorner, Haim Werner, and Kevin Yuen


The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH).


A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry.


Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues.

Consensus process

Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors.


LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.