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R Verkauskiene, J Beltrand, O Claris, D Chevenne, S Deghmoun, S Dorgeret, M Alison, P Gaucherand, O Sibony and C Lévy-Marchal

Abstract

Background

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been related to several health risks, which have been generally identified in small-for-gestational age (SGA) individuals.

Objective

To evaluate the impact of FGR on body composition and hormonal status in infants born either small- or appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA).

Methods

Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound every 4 weeks from mid-gestation to birth in 248 high-risk pregnancies for SGA. Fetal growth velocity was calculated as change in the estimated fetal weight percentiles and FGR defined as its reduction by more than 20 percentiles from 22 gestational weeks to birth. Impact of FGR on body composition, cord insulin, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and cortisol concentrations was assessed in SGA and AGA newborns.

Results

Growth-retarded AGA infants showed significantly reduced birth weight, ponderal index, percentage of fat mass, and bone mineral density when compared with AGA newborns with stable intrauterine growth. Cord IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were significantly decreased in growth-retarded infants in both SGA and AGA groups. Cord insulin concentration was significantly lower and cord cortisol significantly higher in AGA infants with FGR versus AGA newborns with stable intrauterine growth.

After adjustment for gestational age and gender, birth weight was directly related to fetal growth velocity and cord IGF-I concentration. The variation in infant's adiposity was best explained by fetal growth velocity and cord insulin concentration.

Conclusions

FGR affects body composition and hormonal parameters in newborns with birth weight within the normal range, suggesting these individuals could be at similar metabolic risks as SGA.

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J C Naafs, L M Vendrig, J Limpens, H J van der Lee, R G Duijnhoven, J P Marchal, A S van Trotsenburg and N Zwaveling-Soonawala

Objective

To provide an overview of cognitive and motor outcome, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with congenital central hypothyroidism (CH-C).

Design

Systematic review with individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis.

Methods

OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo were searched from inception to June 11th, 2019. Studies in patients with CH-C, either isolated or with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD), were included if CH-C patients could be separated from any additional patient groups. Primary outcomes were full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and motor outcome; secondary outcome was QoL. Following data-extraction, one-stage IPD meta-analysis was performed, fitting a linear mixed model with FSIQ as dependent variable. Random intercepts were fitted for each study.

Results

Six studies measuring FSIQ were eligible for meta-analysis, comprising 30 CH-C patients (20 males; 27 MPHD patients). FSIQ range was wide (64–123). Mean weighted FSIQ was 97 (95% CI: 88–105). Twenty-seven percent had an FSIQ below 85 (≥1 s.d. below norm score), and 10% below 70 (≥2 s.d. below norm score). There was no significant association between FSIQ and sex or age. Age at treatment initiation was available from three studies only, thus impeding a reliable analysis of this parameter. Motor outcome and QoL were each studied in one study; no quantitative analyses could be performed for these outcomes.

Conclusion

A wide range in FSIQ scores was observed in CH-C patients. Results should be interpreted with caution, because included patients mainly had MPHD and age at treatment initiation was unknown for the majority of patients.