To evaluate whether parameters for calcium metabolism were associated with characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
A prospective cohort study.
Ninety-one anovulatory, infertile women with PCOS patients underwent clomiphene citrate (CC) stimulation. Main outcome measures were parathyroid hormone (PTH); 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3); serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, and total protein; the serum calcium–phosphorus product; LH; FSH; sexual hormone binding globulin; testosterone; and androstenedione.
PTH correlated inversely with serum calcium (r=−0.235; P=0.004) and 25OHD3 (r=−0.664; P<0.001), whereas positive correlations were found between PTH and body mass index (BMI; r=0.270; P=0.010) and between PTH and testosterone (r=0.347; P=0.001). After stimulation with 50 mg CC, 57.1% (52/91) developed a follicle, whereas 26.4% (24/91) became pregnant. In a multivariate model to predict both follicle development and pregnancy, BMI and 25OHD3 deficiency were significant predictive parameters.
25OHD3 deficiency was an independent predictive parameter of CC stimulation outcome, in terms of follicle development and pregnancy. Our results suggest a substantial role of vitamin D in PCOS and infertility treatment in these patients.