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Daniel S Olsson, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson and Oskar Ragnarsson


Increased mortality rates are found in women and young adults with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). This nationwide study aimed to investigate the burden of comorbidities in patients with NFPA and to examine whether gender influences the outcome.


NFPA patients were identified and followed-up from National Registries in Sweden. It was a nationwide, population-based study.


Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for comorbidities with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Comorbidities were analysed in all patients, both patients with and without hypopituitarism.


Included in the analysis were 2795 patients (1502 men, 1293 women), diagnosed with NFPA between 1987 and 2011. Hypopituitarism was reported in 1500 patients (54%). Mean patient-years at risk per patient was 7 (range 0–25). Both men (SIR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.8–2.5; P<0.001) and women (2.9, 2.4–3.6; P<0.001) had a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than the general population, with women having a higher incidence compared with men (P=0.02). The incidence of myocardial infarction was increased in women (1.7, 1.3–2.1; P<0.001), but not in men. Both men (1.3, 1.1–1.6; P=0.006) and women (2.3; 1.9–2.8; P<0.001) had an increased incidence of cerebral infarction, with women having a higher incidence than men (P<0.001). The incidence of sepsis was increased for both genders. The incidence of fractures was increased in women (1.8, 1.5–1.8; P<0.001), but not for men.


This nationwide study shows excessive morbidity due to T2DM, cerebral infarction and sepsis in all NFPA patients. Women had higher incidence of T2DM, myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and fracture in comparison to both the general population and to men.

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Casper Hammarstrand, Oskar Ragnarsson, Olivia Bengtsson, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Gudmundur Johannsson and Daniel S Olsson


Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate comorbidities including cerebral infarction, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and malignant tumors in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) with and without growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT).


Observational cohort study in patients with NFPA within the western region of Sweden. Subjects were identified through the National Patient Registry and followed between 1987 and 2014. Patient records were reviewed and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs for comorbidities were calculated.


In total, 426 patients were included, 206 with GHRT and 219 without. Median (range) follow-up time for patients with and without GHRT was 12.2 (0–24) and 8.2 (0–27) years, respectively. Mean ± s.d. BMI was 28.5 ± 4.5 and 26.5 ± 4.4 for patients with and without GHRT, respectively (P < 0.001). Incidence of cerebral infarction was increased (SIR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03–1.84; P = 0.032), with no difference between patients with and without GHRT. SIR for T2DM in patients not receiving GHRT was increased (1.65; 1.06–2.46; P = 0.018), whereas the incidence in patients receiving GHRT was not (0.99; 0.55–1.63; P = 0.99). The incidence of malignant tumors was not increased, either in patients with or without GHRT.


The incidence of cerebral infarction is increased in patients with NFPA irrespective of GHRT. Patients without GHRT had an increased risk of T2DM, whereas patients with GHRT had a normal incidence of T2DM, despite having higher BMI. Incidence of malignant tumors was not increased. Thus, long-term GHRT seems to be safe regarding risk of comorbidities.

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Daniel S Olsson, Penelope Trimpou, Tobias Hallén, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Eva Andersson, Thomas Skoglund, Bengt-Åke Bengtsson, Gudmundur Johannsson and Anna G Nilsson


Hypopituitarism has been associated with increased mortality. The excess mortality may be due to untreated growth hormone (GH) deficiency but also due to various underlying disorders. We therefore analysed mortality in patients with only one underlying disorder, non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), with and without GH replacement therapy (GHRT).

Design and method

Patients with NFPA in the western region of Sweden, 1997–2011, were identified through the National Patient Registry and cross-referenced with several National Health Registries. All patient records were reviewed. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the general population as reference. Cox-regression models were performed to identify predictors of mortality.


A total of 426 NFPA patients with 4599 patient-years were included, of whom 207 had used GHRT and 219 had not received GHRT. Median (range) follow-up in patients with and without GHRT was 12.2 (0–25) and 8.2 (0–27) years, respectively. Other pituitary hormone deficiencies were more frequent in the GHRT group than those in the non-GHRT group. SMR was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.44–0.94; P = 0.018) for the GHRT group and 1.16 (0.94–1.42; P = 0.17) for the non-GHRT group. Direct comparison between the groups showed reduced mortality among those who were GH replaced (P = 0.0063). The SMR for malignant tumours was reduced in the GHRT-group (0.29; 0.08–0.73; P = 0.004) but not in untreated patients.


Selection bias explaining some of the results cannot be excluded. However, NFPA patients with GHRT had reduced overall mortality compared with the general population, and death due to malignancy was not increased. This suggests that long-term GHRT is safe in adult patients selected for treatment.