Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author: Ilan Shimon x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Ilan Shimon, Carlos Benbassat and Moshe Hadani

Objective: To review our experience with cabergoline, a D2-selective dopamine agonist, for the treatment of giant prolactinomas.

Design: A retrospective case series; descriptive statistics.

Methods: The study group included 12 men aged 24–52 years (mean 39.2 years) treated for giant prolactinoma at our centers from 1997 to 2006. Cabergoline was started at a dose of 0.5 mg/three times a week and progressively increased as necessary to up to 7 mg/week. Patients were followed by hormone measurements, sellar magnetic resonance imaging, and visual examinations.

Results: In ten patients, cabergoline served as first-line therapy. The other two patients had previously undergone transsphenoidal partial tumor resection because of visual deterioration. Mean serum prolactin level before treatment was 14 393 ± 14 579 ng/ml (range 2047–55 033 ng/ml; normal 5–17 ng/ml). Following treatment, levels normalized in ten men within 1–84 months (mean, 25.3 months) and decreased in the other two to 2–3 times of normal. Tumor diameter, which measured 40–70 mm at diagnosis, showed a mean maximal decrease of 47 ± 21%; response was first noted about 6 months after the onset of treatment. Nine patients had visual field defects at diagnosis; vision returned to normal in three of them and improved in five. Testosterone levels, initially low in all patients, normalized in eight. There were no side effects of treatment.

Conclusion: Cabergoline therapy appears to be effective and safe in men with giant prolactinomas. These findings suggest that cabergoline should be the first-line therapy for aggressive prolactinomas, even in patients with visual field defects.

Free access

Amit Akirov, Hannah Gimbel, Alon Grossman, Tzipora Shochat and Ilan Shimon


Numerous studies investigated the link between hypothyroidism and mortality, but a definite conclusion is hard to reach as these were limited by a number of factors, including age of participants, comorbidities and single measurement of thyroid function.


To evaluate the association between TSH and fT4 levels and mortality in patients with levothyroxine-treated hypothyroidism.

Design and setting

Observational data of hospitalized patients (2011–2014). TSH and fT4 levels obtained between at least 30 days after discharge and until death or end of follow-up were collected. Median TSH and fT4 levels were stratified into categories.


In total, 611 patients with treated hypothyroidism, aged 60–80 years (72% females, mean age 71 ± 6 years) were included in the study.

Main outcome measure

All-cause mortality up to 66 months after discharge, by TSH and fT4 categories.


During follow-up, the average numbers of TSH and fT4 measurements were 5.5 ± 3.8 and 2.5 ± 4.2 per patient respectively. Mortality rates were 28%, 29% and 54% with median TSH of 0.5–2.5, 2.5–5.0 and 5.0–10.0 IU/L respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality with median TSH between 5.0 and 10.0 IU/L were 2.3 (95% CI: 1.6–3.4) and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6–3.2) compared with patients with TSH between 0.5–2.5 IU/L and 2.5–5 IU/L respectively. There was no difference in mortality between patients with median fT4 10–15 or 15–20 pmol/L.


In treated hypothyroid adult patients and serial measurements of thyroid function tests, median TSH levels of 5–10 IU/L are associated with increased mortality with no effect of fT4 levels. Treatment should aim at achieving euthyroidism to improve survival.

Free access

Ilan Shimon, Raquel S Jallad, Maria Fleseriu, Chris G Yedinak, Yona Greenman and Marcello D Bronstein


Patients with acromegaly usually harbor macroadenomas measuring between 10 and 30 mm in maximal diameter. Giant (adenoma size ≥40 mm) GH-secreting pituitary tumors are rarely encountered and the aim of this study is to analyze different methods for managing them.

Design and methods

We have identified 34 patients (15 men and 19 females) with giant adenomas among 762 subjects (4.5%) with acromegaly in our records, and characterized their clinical characteristics and response to treatment.


Mean age at diagnosis was 34.9±12.5 years (range, 16–67 years). Mean adenoma size was 49.4±9.4 mm (range, 40–80 mm); 30 adenomas showed cavernous sinus invasion and 32 had suprasellar extension. Twenty-nine (85%) patients had visual field defects. Mean baseline IGF1 was 3.4±1.8×ULN. All patients except one underwent pituitary surgery (one to three procedures), but none achieved hormonal remission following first surgery. Among the 28 subjects with visual disturbances, 14 recovered post-operatively and 13 improved. Treatment with somatostatin analogs was given to all patients after surgical failure. Six achieved remission, nine others were partially controlled (IGF1<1.5×ULN; 3/9 when combined with cabergoline), and 17 did not respond (two were lost). Nine patients were treated with pegvisomant, alone (n=4) or in combination with somatostatin analogs (n=5); five are in remission and two are partially controlled. Pasireotide-LAR achieved hormonal remission in one of the six patients. Currently, after a mean follow-up period of 8.9 years, 17 patients are in biochemical remission, eight are partially controlled, and seven are uncontrolled (two were lost to follow-up).


Giant GH-secreting adenomas are invasive, uncontrolled by surgery, and respond poorly to medical treatment. Aggressive multimodal therapy is critical for their management, enhancing control rate and biochemical remission.

Free access

Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Gregory Kaltsas, Chamutal Gur, Eyal Gal, Dimitrios Thomas, Susana Fichman, Krystallenia Alexandraki, Dganit Barak, Benjamin Glaser, Ilan Shimon and David J Gross


Gastric carcinoid tumours type 1 (GCA1) originate from hyperplastic enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells secondary to hypergastrinaemia. Treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSA) might impede ECL-cell hyperplasia by suppressing gastrin secretion and/or by a direct anti-proliferative effect on ECL cells. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to assess the effects of long-acting SSA on hypergastrinaemia and ECL-cell proliferation in patients with GCA1.


We studied 15 patients with GCA1 treated with monthly long-acting release octreotide (LAR) (20–30 mg; n=14) or Lanreotide 90 mg (n=1) for at least 6 months. Patients had serum gastrin and chromogranin A measurements performed and biopsies taken from both tumours and surrounding mucosa before, and every 6–12 months following treatment. Sections were immunostained for neuroendocrine markers. The cell proliferation index Ki-67, intensity of staining before and after treatment and the degree of gastric wall invasion were also assessed.


All patients tolerated treatment well (mean follow-up of 18 months). In 11 patients (73%), a complete disappearance of the tumours at 1 year of treatment was observed on endoscopy, while in three patients (20%), the tumours decreased significantly in number and size. Gastrin levels normalized in 25% of patients, and were reduced by more than 80% in the remaining 75%.


Treatment with SSAs in GCA1 leads to a substantial tumour load reduction, with a concomitant decrease of serum gastrin levels. Our data indicate an important anti-proliferative effect of SSA on ECL cells, providing clinical benefit and obviating, at least temporarily, the need for invasive therapies for GCA1.