Ilaria Messuti, Stefania Corvisieri, Francesca Bardesono, Ida Rapa, Jessica Giorcelli, Riccardo Pellerito, Marco Volante and Fabio Orlandi
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) commonly occurs in women of child-bearing age and represents the second most frequent tumor diagnosed during pregnancy only behind breast cancer. It is possible that associated physiological changes could favor tumor development and growth. However, few data are available about the outcome of DTC related to pregnancy, leading to conflicting results.
Among the study population, 340 patients with DTC <45 years old were retrospectively studied. Patients were divided into three groups according to the time of tumor diagnosis in respect of pregnancy. Group 1, diagnosis of DTC at least 2 years after delivery; group 2, diagnosis during pregnancy or within the second year after delivery; and group 3, nulliparous patients at the time of diagnosis. We evaluated clinical outcome and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), ERβ, progesterone receptor, and aromatase. We also analyzed the gene expression of NIS (SLC5A5) and the prevalence of BRAF
Persistence/recurrence of disease was significantly higher in group 2 patients than control groups (P=0.023). No significant differences were observed in other clinical parameters. Furthermore, no differences among the groups were recorded about ER pattern, NIS expression, and BRAF mutations.
Persistence/recurrence of DTC is significantly higher in pregnant patients, suggesting that pregnancy could really exert a negative prognostic role in patients with DTC. The underlying mechanisms are not yet clarified and further studies are required. Our results suggest that a more careful follow-up is needed when diagnosis of DTC occurs during pregnancy or shortly after.
Deborah Cosentini, Giuseppe Badalamenti, Salvatore Grisanti, Vittoria Basile, Ida Rapa, Sara Cerri, Andrea Spallanzani, Paola Perotti, Emanuela Musso, Marta Laganà, Vittorio D Ferrari, Gabriele Luppi, Alberto Dalla Volta, Lorena Incorvaia, Sandra Sigala, Antonio Russo, Marco Volante, Massimo Terzolo and Alfredo Berruti
Temozolomide has shown a significant anti-proliferative activity on adrenocortical cancer (ACC) cells in vitro.
On the basis of these results the drug was prescribed as second/third line in advanced metastatic ACC patients in four referral centers in Italy.
We retrospectively collected anagraphic, clinical and pathological data of patients with advanced ACC with disease progression to standard chemotherapy plus mitotane who were treated with temozolomide at the dose of 200 mg/m2/die given for 5 consecutive days every 28 days. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate, defined as objective response or disease stabilization after 3 months. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and drug safety.
Twenty-eight patients have been included in the study. Ten patients (35.8%, 95% CI: 17.8–53.8) obtained a disease control from temozolomide treatment. In particular, 1 patient had a complete response, 5 patients a partial response and 4 patients stable disease. Median PFS was 3.5 months and median OS was 7.2 months. Disease response was more frequently observed in patients with methylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene. Temozolomide therapy was well tolerated and most toxicities were limited to grade G1–2 according to WHO criteria.
Temozolomide was found active in the management of advanced ACC patients. The disease control rate obtained, however, was short-lived and the prognosis of treated patients was poor.