Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has been associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to investigate systemic levels of pro-inflammatory proteins that previously have not been examined in patients with PHPT. The selection of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers included in this study, MMP9, S100A4, S100A8/A9 and the receptors sCD14 and RAGE, was based on a previous microarray screen of mRNAs in adipose tissue from PHPT patients.
A prospective study was conducted on a total of 57 patients with PHPT and a control group of 20 healthy blood donors.
PHPT patients with normalisation of serum calcium levels after parathyroidectomy were followed for 6 months. Forty-two patients participated in the longitudinal study, in which blood samples were taken at inclusion, and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery.
We observed increased serum levels of MMP9 (P=0.029), S100A4 (P<0.001) and sCD14 (P=0.002) in the 57 patients with PHPT compared to the control-group. During 6 months of follow up, S100A4 (P=0.022) and sCD14 (0.002) decreased significantly, while serum levels of MMP9 increased (P=0.025).
The results demonstrate an increased inflammatory response in PHPT patients shown by elevated MMP9, S100A4 and sCD14 at inclusion. During the 6 months of follow-up, MMP9 increased further, possibly due to the tissue repair process after parathyroidectomy. S100A4 and sCD14 decreased after surgery demonstrating a partial reversal of the systemic inflammation.