The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of clinical diabetes and humoral markers of anti-pancreatic autoimmunity in a homogeneous population of 600 Caucasian patients with recently diagnosed Graves' disease (GD), in order to characterize the specific features of this group of endocrine patients among subjects at risk of diabetes. Ten were already diabetic at GD diagnosis. Among the 590 non-diabetic patients, 29 had islet cell antibodies (ICA), including 15 with low titre ICA and only 1 ICA-positive subject with a familial history of diabetes. Twenty-four patients had insulin autoantibodies, including three in association with ICA. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/64 kDa antibodies were found in 16 of the 150 tested sera, including 13 of the 29 ICA-positive sera. Four ICA-positive patients displayed 37/40 kDa antibodies, including three in association with GAD/64 kDa antibodies. During follow-up, one of the ICA-positive patients developed insulin-dependent diabetes, 14 years after the GD diagnosis. To summarize, this anti-pancreatic autoimmunity study was focused on a large but specific and homogeneous group of subjects at risk for diabetes: recently diagnosed GD patients. This population was characterized by a high prevalence of GAD/64 kDa antibodies but also by a low frequency of evolution towards diabetes and the slowness of the process which could be due to the fact that only a minority of subjects possessed a sufficient combination of anti-pancreatic markers at the same time.
D Maugendre, F Verite, I Guilhem, B Genetet, H Allannic and M Delamaire
P Goudet, C Bonithon-Kopp, A Murat, P Ruszniewski, P Niccoli, F Ménégaux, G Chabrier, F Borson-Chazot, A Tabarin, P Bouchard, G Cadiot, A Beckers, I Guilhem, O Chabre, P Caron, H Du Boullay, B Verges and C Cardot-Bauters
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) disease is an autosomal dominant syndrome that is believed to equally affect men and women. This assumption has never been confirmed.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of gender on the prevalence of MEN1 lesions, on their lifetime probability of occurrence, and on the diagnosis of MEN1.
Data regarding a study of 734 cases of MEN1 from the multicenter ‘Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines’ were analyzed.
There were 57.8% females. The prevalence and probability of pancreatic tumors were higher in males than in females (P=0.06, P=0.0004). This difference was due to gastrinomas. The prevalence and probability of developing pituitary tumors were significantly greater in females (P<0.001, P<0.0001). Thymic tumors were exclusively found in men. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence and the probability of developing hyperparathyroidism, or adrenal and bronchial tumors, or in the proportion of positive genetic tests. A family history of MEN1 was more frequently found in men than in women at the time of diagnosis (P=0.02). In the case of pituitary tumor, the proportion of patients diagnosed with MEN1 at the time of the first lesion was lower in women (44.2%) than in men (67.3%).
The phenotype expression of the MEN1 disease gene was different in males and females. In female patients, the possibility of MEN1 is not sufficiently taken into account. Any patient presenting a lesion that belongs to the MEN1 spectrum, such as a pituitary tumor, should be closely questioned about their family history and should be tested for hypercalcemia.
J Thevenon, A Bourredjem, L Faivre, C Cardot-Bauters, A Calender, M Le Bras, S Giraud, P Niccoli, M F Odou, F Borson-Chazot, A Barlier, C Lombard-Bohas, E Clauser, A Tabarin, E Pasmant, O Chabre, E Castermans, P Ruszniewski, J Bertherat, B Delemer, S Christin-Maitre, A Beckers, I Guilhem, V Rohmer, B Goichot, P Caron, E Baudin, P Chanson, L Groussin, H Du Boullay, G Weryha, P Lecomte, F Schillo, H Bihan, F Archambeaud, V Kerlan, N Bourcigaux, J M Kuhn, B Vergès, M Rodier, M Renard, J L Sadoul, C Binquet and P Goudet
MEN1, which is secondary to the mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Most studies demonstrated the absence of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. The existence of a higher risk of death in the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines-cohort associated with a mutation in the JunD interacting domain suggests heterogeneity across families in disease expressivity. This study aims to assess the existence of modifying genetic factors by estimating the intrafamilial correlations and heritability of the six main tumor types in MEN1.
The study included 797 patients from 265 kindred and studied seven phenotypic criteria: parathyroid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and pituitary, adrenal, bronchial, and thymic (thNET) tumors and the presence of metastasis. Intrafamilial correlations and heritability estimates were calculated from family tree data using specific validated statistical analysis software.
Intrafamilial correlations were significant and decreased along parental degrees distance for pituitary, adrenal and thNETs. The heritability of these three tumor types was consistently strong and significant with 64% (s.e.m.=0.13; P<0.001) for pituitary tumor, 65% (s.e.m.=0.21; P<0.001) for adrenal tumors, and 97% (s.e.m.=0.41; P=0.006) for thNETs.
The present study shows the existence of modifying genetic factors for thymus, adrenal, and pituitary MEN1 tumor types. The identification of at-risk subgroups of individuals within cohorts is the first step toward personalization of care. Next generation sequencing on this subset of tumors will help identify the molecular basis of MEN1 variable genetic expressivity.
Jacques Young, Jérôme Bertherat, Marie Christine Vantyghem, Olivier Chabre, Salima Senoussi, Rita Chadarevian, Frédéric Castinetti and the Compassionalte use Programme
Ketoconazole (KTZ) is one of few available treatments for Cushing’s syndrome (CS). Although KTZ has been associated with severe hepatotoxicity, little information is available about hepatic safety in CS. The aim of this study was to document changes in liver function in patients with CS treated with KTZ.
An observational prospective French cohort study (Compassionate Use Programme (CUP)).
Enrolled patients were stratified into a KTZ-naive cohort and a cohort already treated by another formulation of ketoconazole (KTZ-switch cohort). Liver function markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin) were monitored at regular intervals. Patients with ALT > 3 × ULN (upper limit of normal), total bilirubin > 2 × ULN or both ALP > 2 × ULN and ALT > ULN were considered to have liver injury.
Overall, 108 patients were analysed (47 KTZ-naïve; 61 KTZ-switch). The median KTZ dose was 600 mg/day. Most abnormalities observed were asymptomatic mild increases of liver enzymes. Four patients in the KTZ-naïve cohort (8.5%) and two in the KTZ-switch cohort (3.3%) developed liver injury, considered related to KTZ in three cases (all KTZ-naïve in the first month of treatment). Five patients had mild liver function abnormalities at baseline and two had proven liver metastases. Two patients recovered on discontinuation of KTZ and the remaining patient died of unrelated causes.
These findings highlight the need for close monitoring of liver enzymes especially during the first six months of treatment. Liver enzyme abnormalities usually occurred within four weeks were asymptomatic and could be reversed on timely discontinuation of KTZ.