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Eyun Song, Min Ji Jeon, Hye-Seon Oh, Minkyu Han, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Ki-Wook Chung, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Dong Eun Song and Won Gu Kim


Evidence for unfavorable outcomes of each type of aggressive variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (AV-PTC) is not clear because most previous studies are focused on tall cell variant (TCV) and did not control for other major confounding factors contributing to clinical outcomes.


Retrospective cohort study.


This study included 763 patients with classical PTC (cPTC) and 144 with AV-PTC, including TCV, columnar cell variant (CCV) and hobnail variants. Disease-free survival (DFS) and dynamic risk stratification (DRS) were compared after two-to-one propensity score matching by age, sex, tumor size, lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension.


The AV-PTC group had significantly lower DFS rates than its matched cPTC group (HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.12–4.16, P = 0.018). When TCV and CCV were evaluated separately, there was no significant differences in DFS and DRS between patients with TCV (n = 121) and matched cPTC. However, CCV group (n = 18) had significantly poorer DFS than matched cPTC group (HR = 12.19, 95% CI: 2.11–70.33, P = 0.005). In DRS, there were significantly more patients with structural incomplete responses in CCV group compared by matched cPTC group (P = 0.047). CCV was an independent risk factor for structural persistent/recurrent disease in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.28; 95% CI: 1.66–11.00, P = 0.001).


When other clinicopathological factors were similar, patients with TCV did not exhibit unfavorable clinical outcome, whereas those with CCV had significantly poorer clinical outcome. Individualized therapeutic approach might be necessary for each type of AV-PTCs.

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Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Hyemi Kwon, Mijin Kim, Suyeon Park, Hye-Seon Oh, Minkyu Han, Tae-Yon Sung, Ki-Wook Chung, Suck Joon Hong, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong and Won Bae Kim


Active surveillance is an option for patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). However, the long-term clinical outcomes after delayed surgery remain unclear. We compared the long-term clinical outcomes of PTMC patients according to the time interval between initial diagnosis and surgery.

Design and methods

In this individual risk factor-matched cohort study, PTMC patients were classified into three groups according to the delay period: ≤6 months, 6–12 months and >12 months. Patients were matched by age, sex, extent of surgery, initial tumor size as measured by ultrasonography (US), and by the presence of extrathyroidal extension, multifocal tumors and central cervical lymph node metastasis. We compared the dynamic risk stratification (DRS) and the development of structural persistent/recurrent disease of patients.


A total of 2863 patients were assigned to three groups. Their mean age was 50 years, 81% were female and 66% underwent lobectomy. The mean tumor size at the initial US was 0.63 cm. There were no significant differences in clinicopathological characteristics between groups after individual risk factor matching. Comparison of the DRS revealed no significant difference according to the delay period (P = 0.07). During the median 4.8 years of follow-up, there were no significant differences in the development of structural recurrent/persistent disease (P = 0.34) and disease-free survival (P = 0.25) between groups.


In PTMC patients, delayed surgery was not associated with higher risk of structural recurrent/persistent disease compared to immediate surgery. These findings support the notion that surgical treatment can be safely delayed in patients with PTMC under close monitoring.