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Guang-da Xiang, Jinhui Pu, Huiling Sun, Linshuang Zhao, Ling Yue and Jie Hou


Impairment of flow-mediated endothelium-dependent arterial dilation (FMD) exists in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Several studies showed that exercise training can improve FMD in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesized that exercise training can also improve FMD in subjects with sHT. The purpose of the study was to test this hypothesis.

Research design and methods

We selected 30 sedentary women with sHT and 27 sedentary healthy women with euthyroid. All individuals participated in an exercise training of 6 months. Before and after exercise training, high resolution ultrasound was used to measure FMD.


At baseline, FMD among subjects with sHT was 3.87%, which was significantly lower than that in controls (5.98%; P<0.001). After 6 months of exercise, there was a remarkable increase in FMD (31.3%) and VO2 max (36.7%; P<0.01), and significant decreases in total cholesterol (20%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL; 29%), triglycerides (TG; 47.6%), and C-reactive protein (CRP; 61.5%; P<0.05) were observed over the exercise in patients with sHT. The absolute changes in FMD showed significant correlation with changes in LDL (r=−0.596), TG (r=−0.532), and CRP (r=−0.511; P<0.01), and multiple regression analysis showed changes of LDL, TG, CRP were significant determinants of changes of FMD in sHT patients during exercise course.


Regular aerobic exercise improves FMD in sHT patients, and changes of lipids and inflammation during the exercise period may partially contribute to the improvement of endothelial function.

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Shunming Zhang, Yeqing Gu, Liu Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Min Lu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Honglei Wang, Hongbin Shi, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Huiling Xiang and Kaijun Niu

Background and Aims

The protective effect of garlic against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported in animal studies. However, in humans, the association between garlic consumption and NAFLD is unclear. The study sought to explore the association between habitual raw garlic intake and newly diagnosed NAFLD among Chinese adults.


We performed a study of 11,326 men and 12,780 women aged 20–90 years. Habitual food intake was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on the liver ultrasonography and self-reported alcohol intake. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of raw garlic intake with newly diagnosed NAFLD.


The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 28.9% in men and 10.1% in women, respectively. In men, the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having NAFLD across increasing frequency of raw garlic intake were 1.00 (reference) for <1 time/week, 0.81 (0.73, 0.90) for 1–3 times/week, 0.66 (0.54, 0.80) for 4–6 times/week, and 0.71 (0.55, 0.90) for ≥7 times/week (P for trend <0.0001). The odds ratio for NAFLD associated with each 1 g of raw garlic/1000 kcal was 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) in men. In women, no significant association between raw garlic intake and NAFLD was identified. These associations between raw garlic intake and NAFLD were consistent in several sensitivity analyses.


Frequent consumption of raw garlic is inversely associated with NAFLD in Chinese men. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.