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Kun Zhang, Lin jie Wang, Lian Duan, Hongbo Yang, Hui Pan, Xin Lian, Yong Yao, and Huijuan Zhu

Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis initiation/recovery after treatment and to identify predictive risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.

Methods: A total of 127 consecutive suprasellar germ cell tumor (GCT) patients managed at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (2006-2019) were retrospectively analyzed. Prepubertal patients (followed up until 13 years of age for girls and 14 years of age for boys) and patients with HPG dysfunction (followed up for 2 years) were divided into the initiation/recovery and noninitiation/recovery groups.

Results: Of 127 suprasellar GCT patients, 75 met the follow-up criteria, and 28 (37.3%) of whom experienced HPG axis initiation/recovery. Compared to the noninitiation/recovery group, the initiation/recovery group included more males and had shorter delayed diagnosis times, smaller tumor sizes, lower panhypopituitarism rates, thinner pituitary stalk widths, lower visual deficit rates, and higher serum testosterone and estradiol levels. The cutoff values of pituitary stalk width, tumor size, and delayed diagnosis time used to predict noninitiation/recovery were 6.9 mm, 6.9 mm and 1.7 years, respectively. Tumor size ≥6.9 mm (odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-25.8, P = 0.001), panhypopituitarism (OR = 5.0, 95% CI 1.4-17.6, P = 0.013), and delayed diagnosis time ≥1.7 years (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 1.5-20.7, P = 0.009) were risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.

Conclusions: Among suprasellar GCT patients, nearly one-third of prepubertal patients and patients with HPG dysfunction experience HPG axis initiation/recovery after treatment. Tumor size ≥6.9 mm, panhypopituitarism, and delayed diagnosis time ≥1.7 years were identified as predictive risk factors for noninitiation/recovery.

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Yong Yao, Yang Liu, Linjie Wang, Kan Deng, Hongbo Yang, Lin Lu, Feng Feng, Bing Xing, Hui You, Zimeng Jin, Renzhi Wang, Hui Pan, Shi Chen, and Huijuan Zhu

Objective

McCuneAlbright syndrome (MAS) is a sporadic, postzygotic disease presenting with fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait spots and multiple endocrinopathies. Growth hormone (GH) excess is an uncommon but potentially severe complication of MAS. This study aims to describe the clinical manifestations of GH excess in the context of MAS and analyze the responses of these patients to treatments.

Design

Retrospective clinical study.

Methods

Clinical data from 52 MAS patients were analyzed. Serum GH and IGF1 levels, as well as nadir GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined before and after the treatment.

Results

In total, 13 MAS patients (25%) had the complication of GH excess, including 10 males (76.9%). Among them, all had FD, and 6 patients had sphenoidal bone involvement. Visual deficits were present in 8 patients, and hearing deficits were present in 5. Olfactory dysfunction was observed in 3 patients. Evident pituitary adenomas were confirmed in 9 patients by MRI. These patients underwent surgery with or without pretreatment of long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide, and 6 achieved complete remission. The serum ALP levels decreased significantly after treatment for GH excess.

Conclusions

MAS with GH excess is more common in male patients. GH excess can lead to more severe skeletal lesions in MAS patients involving more of the craniofacial bones. Complete trans-sphenoidal complete tumor excision with neuronavigational guidance is effective and could lower ALP levels. LAR is recommended as a preoperative treatment and when patients fail to achieve complete remission after surgery.

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Shirui Wang, Yuelun Zhang, Shubin Lei, Huijuan Zhu, Jianqiang Li, Qing Wang, Jijiang Yang, Shi Chen, and Hui Pan

Objective

Automatic diabetic retinopathy screening system based on neural networks has been used to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, there is no quantitative synthesis of performance of these methods. We aimed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of neural networks in DR grading.

Methods

Medline, Embase, IEEE Xplore, and Cochrane Library were searched up to 23 July 2019. Studies that evaluated performance of neural networks in detection of moderate or worse DR or diabetic macular edema using retinal fundus images with ophthalmologists’ judgment as reference standard were included. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Risk of bias of eligible studies was assessed using QUDAS-2 tool.

Results

Twenty-four studies involving 235 235 subjects were included. Quantitative random-effects meta-analysis using the Rutter and Gatsonis hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics (HSROC) model revealed a pooled sensitivity of 91.9% (95% CI: 89.6% to 94.3%) and specificity of 91.3% (95% CI: 89.0% to 93.5%). Subgroup analyses and meta-regression did not provide any statistically significant findings for the heterogeneous diagnostic accuracy in studies with different image resolutions, sample sizes of training sets, architecture of convolutional neural networks, or diagnostic criteria.

Conclusions

State-of-the-art neural networks could effectively detect clinical significant DR. To further improve diagnostic accuracy of neural networks, researchers might need to develop new algorithms rather than simply enlarge sample sizes of training sets or optimize image quality.

Open access

Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Xu Yuping, Qi Zhang, Linjie Wang, Fengying Gong, Huijuan Zhu, Weibo Xia, and Hui Pan

Context

Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fracture. Bone microarchitecture is insufficiently evaluated in patients with childhood-onset AGHD (CO AGHD).

Objective

To assess volumetric bone density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture in CO AGHD in early adulthood after cessation of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) treatment.

Design and subjects

Case–control study in a major academic medical center in Beijing, including 20 young male adults with CO AGHD and 30 age- and weight-matched non-athletic healthy men. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) of distal radius and tibia was performed.

Outcomes

The main outcomes were vBMD and morphometry parameters from HR-pQCT.

Results

Compared with healthy controls, CO AGHD group had significantly decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level and IGF-1 SDS (P < 0.001). β-CTX and alkaline phosphatase levels in CO AGHD group were significantly increased (P < 0.001). CO AGHD group had significantly decreased total vBMD, cortical vBMD, trabecular vBMD, cortical area, cortical thickness as well as trabecular thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction of both tibia and radius (P < 0.001). CO AGHD patients had an 8.4 kg decrease in grip strength and a significant decrease in creatinine levels (P = 0.001). At both tibia and radius, by finite element analysis, bone stiffness and failure load of the CO AGHD patients were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, BMI and serum levels of testosterone and free thyroxin, serum IGF-1 level was a positive predictor for total vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical area, trabecular vBMD, bone stiffness and failure load of both tibia and distal radius in all subjects.

Conclusions

Young adult male patients with childhood-onset adult growth hormone deficiency who are no longer receiving growth hormone replacement have prominently impaired volumetric bone density and bone microarchitecture and lower estimated bone strength.