Yong Yao, Yang Liu, Linjie Wang, Kan Deng, Hongbo Yang, Lin Lu, Feng Feng, Bing Xing, Hui You, Zimeng Jin, Renzhi Wang, Hui Pan, Shi Chen and Huijuan Zhu
McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) is a sporadic, postzygotic disease presenting with fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait spots and multiple endocrinopathies. Growth hormone (GH) excess is an uncommon but potentially severe complication of MAS. This study aims to describe the clinical manifestations of GH excess in the context of MAS and analyze the responses of these patients to treatments.
Retrospective clinical study.
Clinical data from 52 MAS patients were analyzed. Serum GH and IGF1 levels, as well as nadir GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined before and after the treatment.
In total, 13 MAS patients (25%) had the complication of GH excess, including 10 males (76.9%). Among them, all had FD, and 6 patients had sphenoidal bone involvement. Visual deficits were present in 8 patients, and hearing deficits were present in 5. Olfactory dysfunction was observed in 3 patients. Evident pituitary adenomas were confirmed in 9 patients by MRI. These patients underwent surgery with or without pretreatment of long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide, and 6 achieved complete remission. The serum ALP levels decreased significantly after treatment for GH excess.
MAS with GH excess is more common in male patients. GH excess can lead to more severe skeletal lesions in MAS patients involving more of the craniofacial bones. Complete trans-sphenoidal complete tumor excision with neuronavigational guidance is effective and could lower ALP levels. LAR is recommended as a preoperative treatment and when patients fail to achieve complete remission after surgery.
Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Xu Yuping, Qi Zhang, Linjie Wang, Fengying Gong, Huijuan Zhu, Weibo Xia and Hui Pan
Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by low bone density and increased risk of fracture. Bone microarchitecture is insufficiently evaluated in patients with childhood-onset AGHD (CO AGHD).
To assess volumetric bone density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture in CO AGHD in early adulthood after cessation of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) treatment.
Design and subjects
Case–control study in a major academic medical center in Beijing, including 20 young male adults with CO AGHD and 30 age- and weight-matched non-athletic healthy men. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) of distal radius and tibia was performed.
The main outcomes were vBMD and morphometry parameters from HR-pQCT.
Compared with healthy controls, CO AGHD group had significantly decreased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level and IGF-1 SDS (P < 0.001). β-CTX and alkaline phosphatase levels in CO AGHD group were significantly increased (P < 0.001). CO AGHD group had significantly decreased total vBMD, cortical vBMD, trabecular vBMD, cortical area, cortical thickness as well as trabecular thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction of both tibia and radius (P < 0.001). CO AGHD patients had an 8.4 kg decrease in grip strength and a significant decrease in creatinine levels (P = 0.001). At both tibia and radius, by finite element analysis, bone stiffness and failure load of the CO AGHD patients were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, BMI and serum levels of testosterone and free thyroxin, serum IGF-1 level was a positive predictor for total vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical area, trabecular vBMD, bone stiffness and failure load of both tibia and distal radius in all subjects.
Young adult male patients with childhood-onset adult growth hormone deficiency who are no longer receiving growth hormone replacement have prominently impaired volumetric bone density and bone microarchitecture and lower estimated bone strength.
Jie Qiao, Bing Han, Bing-Li Liu, Wei Liu, Jia-Jun Wu, Chun-Ming Pan, He Jiang, Ting Gu, Bo-Ren Jiang, Hui Zhu, Ying-Li Lu, Wan-Ling Wu, Ming-Dao Chen and Huai-Dong Song
17α-Hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD) caused by a mutation in the CYP17A1 gene is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, and abnormal development of the genitalia. The majority of CYP17A1 mutations are located in the coding sequence, and several intronic splicing site mutations have been reported.
A 2.5-year-old girl with 46,XY disordered sex development exhibited a nearly normal basal cortisol level and reduced sexual steroids. This study is aimed to explore the molecular basis and analyze its possible influence on the phenotype of the patient.
Methods and results
Mutation analysis revealed compound heterozygous CYP17A1 mutations, with c.985_987delinsAA in one allele and a synonymous substitution (c.1263G>A) in another allele. In vitro expression analysis of the allelic minigene showed that the novel nucleotide variation located in exon 8 induces a splicing signal, which results in an aberrant splicing of CYP17A1 mRNA and a missing portion of exon 8. The translation product includes the deletion of six or seven amino acids from residue position 415 without causing a frameshift. Consistent with the result of molecular modeling, functional studies in transiently transfected HEK-293T cells with the aberrantly spliced enzyme proteins showed that the deleted proteins completely abolished the enzyme activity. However, RT-PCR indicated the existence of a small fraction of normal, functionally intact enzyme, which may explain the partial masculinization of this patient.
This is the first description of an exonic splicing mutation in CYP17A1 relevant to the 17OHD phenotype. It also demonstrates the importance of studying synonymous change in such patients with less severe phenotype.
Bing-Li Liu, Shao-Ying Yang, Wei Liu, Li-Qiong Xue, Xia Chen, Chun-Ming Pan, Zhao-Hui Gu, Ming Zhan, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Jun Liang, Guan-Qi Gao, Wen-Hua Du, Guo-Yue Yuan, Ru Ying, Shuang-Xia Zhao and Huai-Dong Song
Convincing evidence has demonstrated the association of TSH receptor (TSHR) with Graves' disease (GD) in the Chinese Han population.
The aim of this study was to identify the causal variants for GD in the region encompassing TSHR by a refining association study.
Design and methods
GD patients (1536) and 1516 sex-matched controls were recruited in the first stage, and an additional 3832 GD patients and 3426 sex-matched controls were recruited in the replication stage. Genotyping was performed using Illumina Human660-Quad BeadChips or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Assays and the Fluidigm EP1 platform.
When the results of regression analysis for 74 genotyped SNPs and 922 imputed SNPs in the first-stage cohort were combined, rs179243 and rs3783949 were the probable susceptibility SNPs associated with GD in TSHR. Eleven SNPs, including rs179243 and rs3783949, were selected to further refine the association in the replication study. Finally, rs12101261 and rs179243 were confirmed as independent GD susceptibility variants in the replication and combined populations. Further, we also found that the rate of persistent TSHR autoantibody positivity (pTRAb+) was significantly higher in the GD patients with the susceptible genotypes rs12101261 or rs179243 than in the GD patients carrying the protective genotypes, after the GD patients had been treated for more than 1 year.
These findings indicate that rs12101261 and rs179243 are the possible causal SNPs for GD susceptibility in the TSHR gene and could serve as genetic markers to predict the outcome of pTRAb+ in GD patients.