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Benjamin Lechner, Katharina Lechner, Daniel Heinrich, Christian Adolf, Finn Holler, Holger Schneider, Felix Beuschlein, and Martin Reincke

In patients with primary aldosteronism, specific treatment provides prognostic benefit over optimal antihypertensive therapy and is therefore crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity in this subgroup of patients with hypertension. Prognostic relevance has been shown for adrenalectomy in unilateral disease and for medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Collectively, evidence points to the superiority of surgical treatment compared to medical treatment. The causal approach of removing the mineralocorticoid excess, as well as the often-accompanying glucocorticoid excess, might provide one biologically plausible explanation for the observation of slightly better outcomes with surgical therapy. However, in patients living with primary aldosteronism, medical treatment is often insufficient for three major reasons. First and foremost, no marker of sufficient aldosterone blockade has yet been established and therefore adequate treatment of the aldosterone excess is often dismissed as a treatment goal. Second, side effects often limit patient compliance. Third, as recommendations differ from other indications like heart failure, drug dosing is often inadequate. The aim of this review is first to provide an overview over medical treatment options and second to review potential markers for treatment surveillance in patients with primary aldosteronism.

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Frederick Vogel, Leah Braun, German Rubinstein, Stephanie Zopp, Sarina Benedix, Holger Schneider, Katrin Ritzel, Katharina Schilbach, Ralf Schmidmaier, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Bidlingmaier, and Martin Reincke


Glucocorticoid excess leads to muscle atrophy and weakness in patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is known to have protective effects on muscle loss. We hypothesized that individual serum IGF-I concentrations might be predictive for long-term myopathy outcome in Cushing’s syndrome.

Patients and methods

In a prospective longitudinal study of 31 patients with florid Cushing’s syndrome, we analyzed IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP 3) concentrations at the time of diagnosis and following surgical remission over a period of up to 3 years. We assessed muscle strength by grip strength measurements using a hand grip dynamometer and muscle mass by bio-impedance measurements.


Individual serum IGF-I concentrations in the postoperative phase were strongly predictive of long-term grip strength outcome (rs = 0.696, P ≤ 0.001). Also, lower IGF-I concentrations were associated with a lower muscle mass after 3 years (rs = 0.404, P  = 0.033). While patients with high IGF-I s.d. scores (SDS; >1.4) showed an improvement in grip strength within the follow-up period (P  = 0.009), patients with lower IGF-I SDS (≤−0.4) had a worse outcome with persisting muscle dysfunction. In contrast, preoperative IGF-I concentrations during the florid phase of Cushing’s syndrome did not predict long-term muscle function outcome (rs = 0.285, P  = 0.127).


Lower individual IGF-I concentrations 6 months after curative surgery for Cushing’s syndrome are associated with adverse long-term myopathy outcome and IGF-I might be essential for muscle regeneration in the early phase after correction of hypercortisolism.