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Open access

Silje Rafaelsen, Stefan Johansson, Helge Ræder and Robert Bjerknes

Objective

Hereditary hypophosphatemias (HH) are rare monogenic conditions characterized by decreased renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, genotypes, phenotypic spectrum, treatment response, and complications of treatment in the Norwegian population of children with HH.

Design

Retrospective national cohort study.

Methods

Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification analysis of PHEX and Sanger sequencing of FGF23, DMP1, ENPP1 KL, and FAM20C were performed to assess genotype in patients with HH with or without rickets in all pediatric hospital departments across Norway. Patients with hypercalcuria were screened for SLC34A3 mutations. In one family, exome sequencing was performed. Information from the patients' medical records was collected for the evaluation of phenotype.

Results

Twety-eight patients with HH (18 females and ten males) from 19 different families were identified. X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) was confirmed in 21 children from 13 families. The total number of inhabitants in Norway aged 18 or below by 1st January 2010 was 1 109 156, giving an XLHR prevalence of ∼1 in 60 000 Norwegian children. FAM20C mutations were found in two brothers and SLC34A3 mutations in one patient. In XLHR, growth was compromised in spite of treatment with oral phosphate and active vitamin D compounds, with males tending to be more affected than females. Nephrocalcinosis tended to be slightly more common in patients starting treatment before 1 year of age, and was associated with higher average treatment doses of phosphate. However, none of these differences reached statistical significance.

Conclusions

We present the first national cohort of HH in children. The prevalence of XLHR seems to be lower in Norwegian children than reported earlier.

Free access

Helge Ræder, Nick Shaw, Coen Netelenbos and Robert Bjerknes

In hypophosphatemic rickets, there are both inherited and acquired forms, where X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most prevalent genetic form and caused by mutations in the phosphate-regulating endopeptidase (PHEX) gene. XLH is associated with growth retardation and bone deformities. The renal tubular cells have an important role in calcium and phosphate metabolism, where the 1α-hydroxylase enzyme metabolizes the conversion of 25 (OH)-vitamin D to potent 1,25 (OH)2-vitamin D, whereas the sodium–phosphate transporter controls tubular phosphate reabsorption. The pathophysiological defect in XLH is speculated to cause an increase in a circulating phosphate regulating hormone termed phosphatonin (fibroblast growth factor 23 is the primary phosphatonin candidate), which leads to inhibition of 1α-hydroxylase, and simultaneously to inhibition of the sodium–phosphate transporter domain NPT2c leading to parathyroid hormone-independent phosphaturia. Hence, current treatment of XLH is 1,25 (OH)2-vitamin D or the vitamin D analog alfacalcidol and elementary phosphorus. Unfortunately, patients with XLH may develop nephrocalcinosis, secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, and in some situations also hypertension and cardiovascular abnormalities. We describe a patient with XLH caused by a novel missense mutation in the PHEX gene, who on treatment with alfacalcidol and oral phosphate had normal growth and minimal bone deformities, but who subsequently developed moderate nephrocalcinosis, significant hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, renal failure, and hypertension. We also report the use of the calcimimetic drug cinacalcet in the successful treatment of hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism.