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Heike Biebermann, Petra Ambrugger, Patrick Tarnow, Arpad von Moers, Ulrich Schweizer and Annette Grueters

Objective: Thyroid hormones, besides having other functions, are known to be essential for the development of the human brain. Recently the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) was identified as a thyroid hormone transporter which is expressed in different regions of the human brain. Here we describe in detail the clinical and biochemical features in response to thyroid hormone administration of a boy carrying an MCT8 mutation (A150V) in the second transmembrane domain.

Methods: To study the functional impact of the mutation we performed triiodothyronine (T3) uptake, immunofluorescence and dimerization studies.

Results: Thyroid hormone (l-thyroxine (LT4) and LT3) administration did not result in any significant clinical changes; however, with high doses of LT4, alone or in combination with T3, TSH suppression was achieved. We could show a robust uptake of 125I-T3 for wild type (WT) MCT8, whereas no specific uptake could be detected for the mutant A150V. Subcellular localization of WT and mutant MCT8 revealed a strong cell surface expression for the WT MCT8, in contrast to A150V, which is mostly retained intracellularly with only weak cell surface expression. We could also demonstrate for the first time that WT MCT8 as well as the mutant are able to form multimers.

Conclusion: Our findings open a wide field of possible interaction within the central nervous system and will help to understand the crucial role of MCT8 in early fetal brain development.

Free access

Eva Al Taji, Heike Biebermann, Zdeňka Límanová, Olga Hníková, Jaroslav Zikmund, Christof Dame, Annette Grüters, Jan Lebl and Heiko Krude

Objective: Mutations in NKX2.1, NKX2.5, FOXE1 and PAX8 genes, encoding for transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid gland, have been identified in a minority of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic congenital hypothyroidism (CH).

Design: In a phenotype-selected cohort of 170 Czech paediatric and adolescent patients with non-goitre CH, including thyroid dysgenesis, or non-goitre early-onset hypothyroidism, PAX8, NKX2.1, NKX2.5, FOXE1 and HHEX genes were analysed for mutations.

Methods: NKX2.1, NKX2.5, FOXE1 and HHEX genes were directly sequenced in patients with syndromic CH. PAX8 mutational screening was performed in all 170 patients by single-stranded conformation polymorphism, followed by direct sequencing of samples with abnormal findings. The R52P PAX8 mutation was functionally characterized by DNA binding studies.

Results: We identified a novel PAX8 mutation R52P, dominantly inherited in a three-generation pedigree and leading to non-congenital, early-onset, non-goitre, non-autoimmune hypothyroidism with gradual postnatal regression of the thyroid size and function. The R52P PAX8 mutation results in the substitution of a highly conserved residue of the DNA-binding domain with a loss-of-function effect. Conclusions: The very low frequency of genetic defects in a population-based cohort of children affected by non-goitre congenital and early-onset hypothyroidism, even in a phenotype-focussed screening study, suggests the pathogenetic role of either non-classic genetic mechanisms or the involvement of genes unknown so far. Identification of a novel PAX8 mutation in a particular variant of non-congenital early-onset hypothyroidism indicates a key function of PAX8 in the postnatal growth and functional maintenance of the thyroid gland.

Free access

Jeannine Sauber, Jessica Grothe, Maria Behm, André Scherag, Harald Grallert, Thomas Illig, Anke Hinney, Johannes Hebebrand, Susanna Wiegand, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude and Heike Biebermann

Objective

In the past 20 years, obesity has become a major health problem due to associated diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus. The gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) modulates body weight and glucose homeostasis and, therefore, represents an interesting candidate gene for obesity and the comorbidity impaired glucose homeostasis. Recently, a GIPR variation was found to be associated with impaired insulin response in humans.

In this study, we screened the GIPR gene for mutations and examined the association between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8111428, rs2302382, rs1800437) and childhood obesity, as well as impaired glucose homeostasis.

Methods

The coding region of the GIPR was screened for mutations by direct sequencing. We genotyped three known SNPs in 2280 healthy normal weight (1696) and obese (584) children and adolescents. Genotyping was performed using the SNaPshot protocol, the iplex, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight spectrometry technique. Obesity was defined by a body mass index SDS above 2; homeostatic model assessment was calculated.

Results

No evidence for an association was found between the SNPs and the obesity phenotype. Significant association was found between the minor allele C of the SNP rs1800437 and elevated homeostasis model of insulin resistance values (P=0.001). No further sequence variations in the GIPR were found to be associated with childhood obesity.

Conclusion

Variations of the GIPR sequence are not associated with childhood obesity. This study points to a potential role for rs1800437 in glucose homeostasis. Further studies are necessary to confirm these results.

Open access

Birgit Köhler, Lin Lin, Inas Mazen, Cigdem Cetindag, Heike Biebermann, Ilker Akkurt, Rainer Rossi, Olaf Hiort, Annette Grüters and John C Achermann

Objective

Hypospadias is a frequent congenital anomaly but in most cases an underlying cause is not found. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, NR5A1, Ad4BP) is a key regulator of human sex development and an increasing number of SF-1 (NR5A1) mutations are reported in 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD). We hypothesized that NR5A1 mutations could be identified in boys with hypospadias.

Design and methods

Mutational analysis of NR5A1 in 60 individuals with varying degrees of hypospadias from the German DSD network.

Results

Heterozygous NR5A1 mutations were found in three out of 60 cases. These three individuals represented the most severe end of the spectrum studied as they presented with penoscrotal hypospadias, variable androgenization of the phallus and undescended testes (three out of 20 cases (15%) with this phenotype). Testosterone was low in all three patients and inhibin B/anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were low in two patients. Two patients had a clear male gender assignment. Gender re-assignment to male occurred in the third case. Two patients harbored heterozygous nonsense mutations (p.Q107X/WT, p.E11X/WT). One patient had a heterozygous splice site mutation in intron 2 (c.103-3A/WT) predicted to disrupt the main DNA-binding motif. Functional studies of the nonsense mutants showed impaired transcriptional activation of an SF-1-responsive promoter (Cyp11a). To date, adrenal insufficiency has not occurred in any of the patients.

Conclusions

SF-1 (NR5A1) mutations should be considered in 46,XY individuals with severe (penoscrotal) hypospadias, especially if undescended testes, low testosterone, or low inhibin B/AMH levels are present. SF-1 mutations in milder forms of idiopathic hypospadias are unlikely to be common.

Open access

Sally Tantawy, Lin Lin, Ilker Akkurt, Guntram Borck, Dietrich Klingmüller, Berthold P Hauffa, Heiko Krude, Heike Biebermann, John C Achermann and Birgit Köhler

Background

Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key transcriptional regulator of many genes involved in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and mutations in NR5A1 can result in 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD). Patients with this condition typically present with ambiguous genitalia, partial gonadal dysgenesis, and absent/rudimentary Müllerian structures. In these cases, testosterone is usually low in early infancy, indicating significantly impaired androgen synthesis. Further, Sertoli cell dysfunction is seen (low inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone). However, gonadal function at puberty in patients with NR5A1 mutations is unknown.

Subjects and methods

Clinical assessment, endocrine evaluation, and genetic analysis were performed in one female and one male with 46,XY DSD who showed spontaneous virilization during puberty. The female patient presented at adolescence with clitoral hypertrophy, whereas the male patient presented at birth with severe hypospadias and entered puberty spontaneously. Molecular analysis of NR5A1 was performed followed by in vitro functional analysis of the two novel mutations detected.

Results

Testosterone levels were normal during puberty in both patients. Analysis of NR5A1 revealed two novel heterozygous missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain of SF-1 (patient 1: p.L376F; patient 2: p.G328V). The mutant proteins showed reduced transactivation of the CYP11A promoter in vitro.

Conclusion

Patients with 46,XY DSD and NR5A1 mutations can produce sufficient testosterone for spontaneous virilization during puberty. Phenotypic females (46,XY) with NR5A1 mutations can present with clitoromegaly at puberty, a phenotype similar to other partial defects of androgen synthesis or action. Testosterone production in 46,XY males with NR5A1 mutations can be sufficient for virilization at puberty. As progressive gonadal dysgenesis is likely, gonadal function should be monitored in adolescence and adulthood, and early sperm cryopreservation considered in male patients if possible.

Free access

Sally Tantawy, Inas Mazen, Hala Soliman, Ghada Anwar, Abeer Atef, Mona El-Gammal, Ahmed El-Kotoury, Mona Mekkawy, Ahmad Torky, Agnes Rudolf, Pamela Schrumpf, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude, Marie-Charlotte Dumargne, Rebekka Astudillo, Anu Bashamboo, Heike Biebermann and Birgit Köhler

Objective

Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1, NR5A1) is a key transcriptional regulator of genes involved in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Recently, SF1 mutations were found to be a frequent cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) in humans. We investigate the frequency of NR5A1 mutations in an Egyptian cohort of XY DSD.

Design

Clinical assessment, endocrine evaluation and genetic analysis of 50 Egyptian XY DSD patients (without adrenal insufficiency) with a wide phenotypic spectrum.

Methods

Molecular analysis of NR5A1 gene by direct sequencing followed by in vitro functional analysis of the two novel missense mutations detected.

Results

Three novel heterozygous mutations of the coding region in patients with hypospadias were detected. p.Glu121AlafsX25 results in severely truncated protein, p.Arg62Cys lies in DNA-binding zinc finger, whereas p.Ala154Thr lies in the hinge region of SF1 protein. Transactivation assays using reporter constructs carrying promoters of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), CYP11A1 and TESCO core enhancer of Sox9 showed that p.Ala154Thr and p.Arg62Cys mutations result in aberrant biological activity of NR5A1. A total of 17 patients (34%) harboured the p.Gly146Ala polymorphism.

Conclusion

We identified two novel NR5A1 mutations showing impaired function in 23 Egyptian XY DSD patients with hypospadias (8.5%). This is the first study searching for NR5A1 mutations in oriental patients from the Middle East and Arab region with XY DSD and no adrenal insufficiency, revealing a frequency similar to that in European patients (6.5–15%). We recommend screening of NR5A1 in patients with hypospadias and gonadal dysgenesis. Yearly follow-ups of gonadal function and early cryoconservation of sperms should be performed in XY DSD patients with NR5A1 mutations given the risk of future fertility problems due to early gonadal failure.

Free access

Anne-Kathrin Wermter, Kathrin Reichwald, Thomas Büch, Frank Geller, Cornelia Platzer, Klaus Huse, Claudia Hess, Helmut Remschmidt, Thomas Gudermann, Gerald Preibisch, Wolfgang Siegfried, Hans-Peter Goldschmidt, Wei-Dong Li, R Arlen Price, Heike Biebermann, Heiko Krude, Caren Vollmert, H-Erich Wichmann, Thomas Illig, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Arne Astrup, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Oluf Pedersen, Delphine Eberlé, Karine Clément, John Blundell, Martin Wabitsch, Helmut Schäfer, Matthias Platzer, Anke Hinney and Johannes Hebebrand

Objective: The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity.

Design: This consisted of genomic screening of 13.4 kb encompassing the MCHR1 in extremely obese German children and adolescents and association analyses for two coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To confirm initial positive association results, additional association studies and transmission disequilibrium tests in further German, Danish, French and American samples were conducted. Selected SNPs were investigated using functional in vitro studies and reporter gene assays.

Methods: Single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, re-sequencing, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation systems, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and reporter gene assays were carried out as well as measuring inositol phosphate formation, inhibition of cAMP formation and activation of p42/44 MAP kinase.

Results: We identified 11 infrequent variations and two SNPs in the MCHR1 coding sequence and 18 SNPs (eight novel) in the flanking sequence. Association and transmission disequilibrium with obesity were detected for several SNPs in independent study groups of German obese children and adolescents and controls. In two German samples, encompassing 4056 and 295 individuals, trends towards association with obesity were detected. Findings in a second epidemiological German sample and in Danish, French and American samples were negative. Functional in vitro studies as well as reporter gene assays revealed no significant results.

Conclusion: Our initial association of MCHR1 alleles/haplotype detected might be related to juvenile-onset obesity, conditional on a particular genetic and/or environmental background. Alternatively, we could not exclude the possibility that the initially detected association represented a false positive finding.