Gonadal dysfunction is an adverse outcome in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which may become apparent already during puberty. Clinical consequences of gonadal dysfunction include menstrual disturbances in females and hypogonadism and impaired fertility in males and females. In males, gonadal dysfunction can be caused by primary gonadal failure due to testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART), and by secondary gonadal failure due to poor hormonal control. In females, gonadal dysfunction can result from an overproduction of adrenal androgens including 11-oxygenated C-19 androgens and progestins, and rarely from ovarian adrenal rest tumours. In all patients with CAH, optimal hormonal control is the key for adequate gonadal function. Therefore, regular measurements of adrenal steroids and/or their metabolites should be performed. In addition, markers of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis need to be assessed. In females, the regularity of the menstrual cycle should be evaluated. In males, regular evaluation for TART using ultrasonography is recommended from the start of puberty or even earlier when poor hormonal control is present. When TART is present, counselling on cryopreservation of semen should be offered.
Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Nike Stikkelbroeck, Henrik Falhammar, and Nicole Reisch
Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Kristof Duthoi, Barto J Otten, Frank C H d'Ancona, Christina A Hulsbergen-vd Kaa, and Ad R M M Hermus
In contrast to the high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) in adult male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), ovarian adrenal rest tumours in female CAH patients are very rare and other locations of adrenal rest tumours have never been reported. Here, we report on an adult patient with CAH due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) deficiency with bilateral TART and additionally a large perirenal adrenal rest tumour.
The patient was known with CAH due to 3β-HSD deficiency and treated with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone since the neonatal period. In puberty, there was lack of compliance with consequently high POMC concentrations. At the age of 16 years, bilateral TART were detected by scrotal ultrasound. Intensifying glucocorticoid medication did not result in decrease in POMC concentrations and shrinkage of size of the tumours. At the age of 23 years, abdominal ultrasound was performed because of abdominal complaints, showing a round inhomogeneous structure with a diameter of 4 cm near the left renal hilus. A computer tomography scan showed a multinodular lesion in the retroperitoneal region beside the left kidney. Histological investigation after removal of the tumour showed sheets of large polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, separated by dense fibrous tissue strands. The histological and immunohistochemical profile resulted in a diagnosis of an adrenal rest tumour.
In adult CAH patients, ectopic adrenal rest tumours can be present outside the testicular region. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether regularly screening for these tumours is useful.
Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Fred C G J Sweep, Johan G Blickman, Ad R M M Hermus, and Barto J Otten
Objective: Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) are a well-known complication in adult male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), with a reported prevalence of up to 94%. In adulthood, the tumours are associated with gonadal dysfunction most probably due to longstanding obstruction of the seminiferous tubules. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of TART and their influence on gonadal function in childhood.
Design: Retrospective study.
Patients and methods: Scrotal ultrasound was performed in 34 children with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency who were between 2 and 18 years old. FSH, LH, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations were measured in serum of 27 patients.
Results: TART were detected by ultrasound in 8 out of 34 (24%) children. In two of them, bilateral tumours were found. All lesions were located in the rete testis. Seven patients had the salt-wasting type of CAH; one patient had the simple virilising type of CAH. Mean tumour size was 4.1 mm (range 2–8 mm). In none of the patients were the tumours palpable. Two children with TART were between 5 and 10 years old, the other six children were above 10 years old. In all children with TART, LH, FSH, testosterone and inhibin B levels were similar to the patients without TART.
Conclusion: TART can be found in CAH children before the age of 10 years. The absence of gonadal dysfunction in our group of children suggests that gonadal dysfunction as frequently reported in adult CAH patients with TART develops after childhood.
Irina Bacila, Nicole Freeman, Eleni Daniel, Marija Sandrk, Jillian Bryce, Salma Rashid Ali, Zehra Yavas Abali, Navoda Atapattu, Tania A Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Niels Birkebæk, Oliver Blankenstein, Walter Bonfig, Martine Cools, Eduardo Correa Costa, Feyza Darendeliler, Silvia Einaudi, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Martijn Finken, Evelien Gevers, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine E Hannema, Claire E Higham, Violeta Iotova, Hetty J van der Kamp, Marta Korbonits, Ruth E Krone, Corina Lichiardopol, Andrea Luczay, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Tatjana Milenkovic, Mirela C Miranda, Klaus Mohnike, Uta Neumann, Rita Ortolano, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Ajay Thankamony, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Ana Vieites, Liat de Vries, S Faisal Ahmed, Richard J Ross, and Nils P Krone
Despite published guidelines no unified approach to hormone replacement in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exists. We aimed to explore geographical and temporal variations in the treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids in CAH.
This retrospective multi-center study, including 31 centers (16 countries), analyzed data from the International-CAH Registry.
Data were collected from 461 patients aged 0–18 years with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (54.9% females) under follow-up between 1982 and 2018. Type, dose and timing of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement were analyzed from 4174 patient visits.
The most frequently used glucocorticoid was hydrocortisone (87.6%). Overall, there were significant differences between age groups with regards to daily hydrocortisone-equivalent dose for body surface, with the lowest dose (median with interquartile range) of 12.0 (10.0–14.5) mg/m2/day at age 1–8 years and the highest dose of 14.0 (11.6–17.4) mg/m2/day at age 12–18 years. Glucocorticoid doses decreased after 2010 in patients 0–8 years (P < 0.001) and remained unchanged in patients aged 8–18 years. Fludrocortisone was used in 92% of patients, with relative doses decreasing with age. A wide variation was observed among countries with regards to all aspects of steroid hormone replacement.
Data from the I-CAH Registry suggests international variations in hormone replacement therapy, with a tendency to treatment with high doses in children.
Angela K Lucas-Herald, Jillian Bryce, Andreas Kyriakou, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Wiebke Arlt, Laura Audí, Antonio Balsamo, Federico Baronio, Silvano Bertelloni, Markus Bettendorf, Antonia Brooke, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Justin Davies, Gloria Hermann, Liat de Vries, Ieuan A Hughes, Rieko Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Feyza Darendeliler, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Mona Ellaithi, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Simona Fica, Lavinia Stejereanu, Aneta Gawlik, Evgenia Globa, Nataliya Zelinska, Tulay Guran, Ayla Güven, Sabine Hannema, Olaf Hiort, P-m Holterhus, Violeta Iotova, Vilhelm Mladenov, Vandana Jain, Rajni Sharma, Farida Jennane, Colin Johnston, Gil Guerra-Junior, Daniel Konrad, Odile Gaisl, Nils P Krone, Ruth Krone, Katherine Lachlan, Dejun Li, Corina Lichiardopol, Lidka Lisá, Renata Levoni Markosyan, Inas Mazen, Klaus Mohnike, Marek Niedziela, Anna Nordenstrom, Rodolfo A Rey, Mars Skae, Lloyd JW Tack, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Naomi Weintrob, Martine Cools, and S Faisal Ahmed
Objectives: To determine trends in clinical practice for individuals with DSD requiring gonadectomy.
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Methods: Information regarding age at gonadectomy according to diagnosis; reported sex; time of presentation to specialist center; and location of center from cases reported to the International DSD Registry and who were over 16 years old in January 2019.
Results: Data regarding gonadectomy were available in 668 (88%) individuals from 44 centers. Of these, 248 (37%) (median age (range) 24 (17, 75) years) were male and 420 (63%) (median age (range) 26 (16, 86) years) were female. Gonadectomy was reported from 36 centers in 351/668 cases (53%). Females were more likely to undergo gonadectomy (n=311, p<0.0001). The indication for gonadectomy was reported in 268 (76%). The most common indication was mitigation of tumour risk in 172 (64%). Variations in the practice of gonadectomy were observed; of the 351 cases from 36 centers, 17 (5%) at 9 centers had undergone gonadectomy before their first presentation to the specialist center. Median age at gonadectomy of cases from high income countries and low/middle income countries (LMIC) was 13.0 yrs (0.1, 68) years and 16.5 yrs (1, 28), respectively (p<0.0001) with the likelihood of long-term retention of gonads being higher in LMIC countries.
Conclusions: The likelihood of gonadectomy depends on the underlying diagnosis, sex of rearing and the geographical setting. Clinical benchmarks, which can be studied across all forms of DSD will allow a better understanding of the variation in the practice of gonadectomy.