Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author: HN Lim x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

NP Mongan, IA Hughes and HN Lim

BACKGROUND: The luteinising hormone receptor (LHR) is necessary for the stimulation of androgen production and male genital development. It contains three protein polymorphisms: a leucine and glutamine insertion between codons 8 and 9 (LQ+) and two amino acid substitutions (N291S, N312S). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether these LHR polymorphisms are associated with male genital undermasculinisation or the androgen receptor polyglutamine repeat polymorphism (AR(Q)n), which contributes in some cases to the cause of genital undermasculinisation. METHODS: The LHR polymorphisms were assessed by PCR amplification of genomic DNA, followed by restriction enzyme analysis. The frequency of the LHR polymorphisms were compared between an undermasculinised male group (n=75) and a control group (n=55). RESULTS: LQ+ was not independently associated with the undermasculinised group (P=0.09), but it was associated with increased AR(Q)n within the undermasculinised group (P=0.02), particularly for AR(Q)n lengths >or=26 (P=0.002). In the undermasculinised group, homozygosity for N291 (872A/A) was more frequent (P=0.05), whereas homozygosity for N312 (935A/A) was less frequent (P=0.05). The combination of the presence of 872A/A and the absence of 935A/A showed a stronger association with the undermasculinised group than either polymorphism independently (P=0.006). The odds ratio of this genotype compared with any other, between the undermasculinised and control groups was 3.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33 to 8.08). CONCLUSION: LHR polymorphisms may contribute to genital undermasculinisation.

Free access

HN Lim, E Raipert-de Meyts, NE Skakkebaek, Hawkins JR and IA Hughes

OBJECTIVE: Testicular maldescent is important because it is a common congenital disorder that is associated with an increased risk of infertility and testicular cancer. Murine studies indicate that testicular maldescent can result from disruption of insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) activity and that it may be more severe when there is concurrent undermasculinisation. Therefore, the INSL3 gene was screened for mutations and polymorphisms that may contribute to testicular maldescent in patients with undermasculinisation as well as those with isolated testicular maldescent. METHODS AND RESULTS: The patient groups consisted of individuals with isolated testicular maldescent (n=28) and patients with undermasculinised genitalia and intra-abdominal (n=24) or inguinal gonads (n=33). The three control groups were: normal males (n=15), males with undermasculinised genitalia and scrotal gonads (n=29) and females (n=82). SSCP/HA mutation screening detected eight variants, five of which were predicted to alter the protein sequence (A-1G, V19L, P25S, A36T, R78H). Three of the amino acid changes (A-1G, V19L, R78H) each occurred in a single control sample and one was identified in a male with undermasculinised genitalia and intra-abdominal testes (P25S). The A36T amino acid polymorphism was found in both patient and control groups at a similar frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that INSL3 mutations and polymorphisms are not a major cause of testicular maldescent with or without associated undermasculinisation.