Guodong Xu, Dingyun You, Liping Wong, Donghui Duan, Fanqian Kong, Xiaohong Zhang, Jinshun Zhao, Wenhua Xing, Liyuan Han and Li Li
Previous studies have shown sex-specific differences in all-cause and CHD mortality in type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a global picture of the estimated influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and CHD mortality in women vs men.
We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published from their starting dates to Aug 7, 2018. The sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and their pooled ratio (women vs men) of all-cause and CHD mortality associated with type 2 diabetes were obtained through an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity.
The 35 analyzed prospective cohort studies included 2 314 292 individuals, among whom 254 038 all-cause deaths occurred. The pooled women vs men ratio of the HRs for all-cause and CHD mortality were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12–1.23, I
2 = 81.6%) and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.49–2.61, I
2 = 86.4%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the HR for all-cause mortality was approximately 1.30 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was longer than 10 years and 1.10 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was less than 10 years. The pooled HRs for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.02–2.69) in women and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.72–2.12) in men, compared with their healthy counterparts.
The effect of diabetes on all-cause and CHD mortality is approximately 17 and 97% greater, respectively, for women than for men.
Xin Qu, Min Wang, Guodong Wang, Tao Han, Chengzhi Mou, Lizhang Han, Meng Jiang, Yuanming Qu, Miao Zhang, Qi Pang and Guangming Xu
Little systematic data on male prolactinomas treated with surgery are available.
To clarify the clinical features and confirm the efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery for male prolactinomas and predictive factors after initial surgery.
Patients and methods
This retrospective study included 87 male patients with prolactinoma treated by transsphenoidal surgery at an academic medical center. Hormonal and visual status, remission rates, and the rate of tumor relapse, as well as predictive factors, were evaluated.
Postoperative initial remission was achieved in 52.9% of patients. The remission rate was markedly higher in microadenomas (83.3%) than in macroadenomas (44.9%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictive factors of the early negative outcomes were high preoperative prolactin (PRL) levels and tumor invasion. After a median follow-up of 45 months, the long-term remission rate was 42.5%, and relapse of hyperprolactinemia occurred in 19.6% of the cured patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival was 78.2% (95% confidence interval, 62.3–88.1%). When surgery was followed by adjuvant treatment in uncured and recurrent patients, 78.8% of patients in the entire group in the absence of dopamine agonists obtained biochemical remission at the end of follow-up.
Transsphenoidal surgery is a viable treatment alternative for male prolactinomas. The remission rates of male patients with microadenomas and/or intrasellar macroprolactinomas by surgery alone remain excellent, and surgery followed by adjuvant therapy as necessary is required for optimizing management of male prolactinomas, especially for extrasellar macroprolactinomas. The early negative results are associated with preoperative PRL levels and tumor invasion.