Gilles Russ, Bénédicte Royer, Claude Bigorgne, Agnès Rouxel, Marie Bienvenu-Perrard and Laurence Leenhardt
To evaluate prospectively the diagnostic accuracy of the thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) and its interobserver agreement and to estimate the reduction of indications of fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs).
A prospective comparative study was designed.
In 2 years, 4550 nodules in 3543 patients were prospectively scored using a flowchart and a six-point scale and then submitted to US-FNAB. Results were read according to the Bethesda system. Histopathological results were available for 263 cases after surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value, and accuracy were calculated for the gray-scale score, elastography, and a combination of both methods. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the kappa statistic. The reduction in the number of FNABs was estimated.
When compared with cytopathological results, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and accuracy were 95.7, 61, 99.7, and 62% for the TI-RADS gray-scale score; 74.2, 91.1, 98, and 90% for elastography; and 98.5, 44.7, 99.8, and 48.3% for a combination of both methods respectively. When compared with histopathological results, the sensitivity of the gray-scale score, elastography, and a combination of both methods were 93.2, 41.9, and 96.7% respectively. Interobserver agreement for the six-point scale and the recommendation for biopsy were substantial (κ value=0.72 and 0.76 respectively). The reduction in the number of FNABs was estimated to be 33.8%.
The TI-RADS score has high sensitivity and NPV for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. A hard nodule should always be considered as suspicious for malignancy but elastography cannot be used alone. Combination of elastography with gray-scale can be used to improve sensitivity or specificity. Interobserver agreement and decrease in unnecessary biopsies are significant.
Charlotte Lepoutre-Lussey, Dina Maddah, Jean-Louis Golmard, Gilles Russ, Frédérique Tissier, Christophe Trésallet, Fabrice Menegaux, André Aurengo and Laurence Leenhardt
Cervical ultrasound (US) scan is a key tool for detecting metastatic lymph nodes (N1) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). N1-PTC patients are stratified as intermediate-risk and high-risk (HR) patients, according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and European Thyroid Association (ETA) respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the value of post-operative cervical US (POCUS) in local persistent disease (PD) diagnosis and in the reassessment of risk stratification in N1-PTC patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Between 1997 and 2010, 638 N1-PTC consecutive patients underwent a systematic POCUS. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of POCUS for the detection of PD were evaluated and a risk reassessment using cumulative incidence functions was carried out.
After a median follow-up of 41.6 months, local recurrence occurred in 138 patients (21.6%), of which 121 were considered to have PD. Sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of POCUS for the detection of the 121 PD were 82.6, 87.4 95.6, and 60.6% respectively. Cumulative incidence of recurrence at 5 years was estimated at 26% in ETA HR patients, 17% in ATA intermediate-risk patients, and 35% in ATA HR patients respectively. This risk fell to 9, 8, and 11% in the above three groups when the POCUS result was normal and to <6% when it was combined with thyroglobulin results at ablation.
POCUS is useful for detecting PD in N1-PTC patients and for stratifying individual recurrence risk. Its high NPV could allow clinicians to tailor follow-up recommendations to individual needs.