Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author: Gerard Conway x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Amy R Frost, Margaret M Band and Gerard S Conway

Objective

To investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in an adult population with Turner's syndrome (TS).

Design

A clinic population with TS was screened using a serological test for CD.

Methods

Two hundred and fifty six patients with TS were included in the study. Five patients had existing diagnoses of CD. The remaining 251 asymptomatic patients were screened using an IgA endomysium antibody (EMA) test. Positive cases were offered endoscopy with duodenal biopsy. HLA typing was undertaken in existing cases and new EMA-positive cases.

Results

Of the 251 patients screened, eight were found to be EMA positive (3.2%). Seven patients proceeded to duodenal biopsy on which all were confirmed histologically to have cluster of differentiation (2.8%). The prevalence of subclinical cluster of differentiation in the population can therefore be estimated between 2.8 and 3.2%. The total population prevalence of CD, including the previously diagnosed cases, is estimated between 4.7 and 5.1%. Ten patients with histologically confirmed cluster of differentiation underwent HLA typing of which eight were HLA-DQ2 positive, one was HLA-DQ8 positive and one was negative to both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates an increased prevalence of cluster of differentiation in an adult population with TS over the general population. This is consistent with previous data published in paediatric populations.

Full access

Amy R Frost, Margaret M Band and Gerard S Conway

Objective

To investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in an adult population with Turner's syndrome (TS).

Design

A clinic population with TS was screened using a serological test for CD.

Methods

Two hundred and fifty six patients with TS were included in the study. Five patients had existing diagnoses of CD. The remaining 251 asymptomatic patients were screened using an IgA endomysium antibody (EMA) test. Positive cases were offered endoscopy with duodenal biopsy. HLA typing was undertaken in existing cases and new EMA-positive cases.

Results

Of the 251 patients screened, eight were found to be EMA positive (3.2%). Seven patients proceeded to duodenal biopsy on which all were confirmed histologically to have CD (2.8%). The prevalence of subclinical CD in the population can therefore be estimated between 2.8 and 3.2%. The total population prevalence of CD, including the previously diagnosed cases, is estimated between 4.7 and 5.1%. Ten patients with histologically confirmed CD underwent HLA typing of which eight were HLA-DQ2 positive, one was HLA-DQ8 positive and one was negative to both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates an increased prevalence of CD in an adult population with TS over the general population. This is consistent with previous data published in paediatric populations.

Full access

Cara Megan Ogilvie, Gill Rumsby, Tom Kurzawinski and Gerard S Conway

Objective: The use of bilateral adrenalectomy in the management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is controversial. We set out to review the outcome of 5 cases of CAH who have undergone adrenalectomy in our unit.

Design: A retrospective case note review and subject interview of the experience of adrenalectomy in the setting of a tertiary adult CAH clinic.

Methods: Subjects who had undergone adrenalectomy were reviewed at a routine clinic visit with particular reference to clinical and biochemical outcomes after adrenalectomy.

Results: Two subjects underwent surgery for the sole indication of desire for fertility with successful outcome and without subsequent adrenal crises. Three women suffered from the common clinical management problem of unsuppressible hyperandrogenism and worsening obesity. Whilst the outcome of improved appearance and weight loss was achieved in these subjects, all three experienced significant complications including pigmentation and acute episodes of adrenal insufficiency.

Conclusion: We present a mean follow-up of 4.2 patient years and conclude that this procedure may be suitable for selected women with CAH. Outcomes for those pursuing fertility were positive; however, complications were noted in those women for whom the procedure was performed for symptom control. Accepting that the number of subjects is small, it is clear that more data are required before widely recommending this procedure.

Full access

Athina Markou, Patrick Manning, Banu Kaya, Sam N Datta, Jamshed B Bomanji and Gerard S Conway

We report a case of a young woman with Cushing’s syndrome (CS), in whom although endocrine investigations and negative pituitary imaging were suggestive of ectopic ACTH secretion, the results of inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling after coricotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation were suggestive of pituitary ACTH hypersecretion. 111In-labelled octreotide and high-resolution computer tomography (CT) revealed a lesion possibly responsible for the ACTH source in the thymus. Thymectomy confirmed concomitant ectopic CRH and probable ACTH production by a thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma. After an 8-year remission period the patient developed a clinical and biochemical relapse. A high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan of the thorax showed a 2-cm nodule in the thymic bed, which was positive on a [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan. However, a repeated thymectomy did not result in remission. A repeat [18F]FDG PET study showed persistent disease in the thymic bed and also uptake in the adrenals. The patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, which resulted in clinical remission. A further [18F]FDG PET scan 8 months later showed no progression of the thymic tumor and confirmed complete excision of the adrenals. This is a rare case of concomitant CRH and ACTH secretion from a thymic carcinoid tumor; the case illustrates the usefulness of functional imaging with [18F]FDG PET in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumors.

Full access

Marta Berra, Emma L Williams, Barbara Muroni, Sarah M Creighton, John W Honour, Gill Rumsby and Gerard S Conway

Context

The late presentation of steroid 5α-reductase-2 (SRD5A2) deficiency in females is poorly characterised. The ratios of 5α/5β-reduced metabolites of adrenal steroids in a urine steroid profile (USP) can give an indication of SRD5A2 deficiency, although the diagnostic cut-off for 5α/5β ratios are not clearly defined in genetically confirmed cases.

Objective

The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of SRD5A2 deficiency in an adult clinic for disorders of sexual development (DSD) focussing on 46XY partially virilised adult female subjects. We investigated the relationship between USP results and SRD5A2 genetic sequence and determined the cut-off for USP 5α/5β-reduced steroid ratios compared with gene sequencing for the identification of SRD5A2 deficiency.

Methods

USP and SRD5A2 genetic analyses were performed in 23 adult females, aged 19–57 years, with 46XY DSD and in four males with confirmed SRD5A2 deficiency. 5α-Reductase activity was assessed using the USP ratio of androsterone to aetiocholanolone (A/Ae), 5α-tetrahydrocortisol (5α-THF)/tetrahydrocortisol (THF) and 5α-tetrahydrocorticosterone to tetrahydrocorticosterone (5α-THB/THB).

Results

The SRD5A2 gene mutations were found in 10/23 (43%) females and in all four males. Totally, four novel mutations were identified. All mutation-positive subjects had A/Ae and 5α-THB/THB ratios below the lower limit of normal (100% sensitivity) while the sensitivity of 5α-THF/THF ratio was 90%.

Conclusion

SRD5A2 deficiency is more prevalent than expected in the adult female 46XY DSD population. The clinical spectrum of this disorder may extend to a more female phenotype than previously considered to include individuals with little or no virilisation.

Full access

Niamh Phelan, Emma L Williams, Stefanie Cardamone, Marilyn Lee, Sarah M Creighton, Gill Rumsby and Gerard S Conway

Context and objective

The precise diagnosis of partially virilised women with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) is often obscure. In practice, this group often comes under the poorly defined, clinically based label of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS). In a previous study, we found that 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2) mutations occurred in 43% of women in this subgroup. We expand this work to include biochemical and genetic screening for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) and androgen receptor (AR) mutations.

Methods

Analysis of serum androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) and genetic analyses for HSD17B3 and AR were performed in 42 women from 36 pedigrees with partially virilised 46,XY DSD in whom SRD5A2 deficiency had been excluded by urine steroid profiling.

Results

Out of 36 unrelated women, 14 (38%) were found to have HSD17B3 mutations and one (2.7%) to have an AR defect. Six novel pathogenic HSD17B3 mutations were identified: three splice site mutations and three missense changes. Seven patients with HSD17B3 deficiency tested before gonadectomy had basal testosterone/androstenedione (T/A) ratio <0.8 (sensitivity 100% and specificity 91%).

Conclusions

HSD17B3 deficiency is prevalent in the adolescent and adult 46,XY female DSD population and is often associated with lesser degrees of virilisation compared with those with 5α-reductase deficiency. This diagnosis should be considered for individuals labelled as PAIS, particularly, but not exclusively, those who present with virilisation at puberty or primary amenorrhoea. Before gondadectomy, T/A ratio is useful to aid diagnosis, but after gonadectomy sequencing of HSD17B3 must be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Full access

Gerard Conway, Didier Dewailly, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale, Stephen Franks, Alessandra Gambineri, Fahrettin Kelestimur, Djuro Macut, Dragan Micic, Renato Pasquali, Marija Pfeifer, Duarte Pignatelli, Michel Pugeat and Bulent O Yildiz

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovarian disorder associated with androgen excess in women, which justifies the growing interest of endocrinologists. Great efforts have been made in the last 2 decades to define the syndrome. The presence of three different definitions for the diagnosis of PCOS reflects the phenotypic heterogeneity of the syndrome. Major criteria are required for the diagnosis, which in turn identifies different phenotypes according to the combination of different criteria. In addition, the relevant impact of metabolic issues, specifically insulin resistance and obesity, on the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the susceptibility to develop earlier than expected glucose intolerance states, including type 2 diabetes, has supported the notion that these aspects should be considered when defining the PCOS phenotype and planning potential therapeutic strategies in an affected subject. This paper offers a critical endocrine and European perspective on the debate on the definition of PCOS and summarises all major aspects related to aetiological factors, including early life events, potentially involved in the development of the disorder. Diagnostic tools of PCOS are also discussed, with emphasis on the laboratory evaluation of androgens and other potential biomarkers of ovarian and metabolic dysfunctions. We have also paid specific attention to the role of obesity, sleep disorders and neuropsychological aspects of PCOS and on the relevant pathogenetic aspects of cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we have discussed how to target treatment choices based according to the phenotype and individual patient's needs. Finally, we have suggested potential areas of translational and clinical research for the future with specific emphasis on hormonal and metabolic aspects of PCOS.

Open access

Thang S Han, Nils Krone, Debbie S Willis, Gerard S Conway, Stefanie Hahner, D Aled Rees, Roland H Stimson, Brian R Walker, Wiebke Arlt, Richard J Ross and the United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive (CaHASE)

Context

Quality of life (QoL) has been variously reported as normal or impaired in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To explore the reasons for this discrepancy we investigated the relationship between QoL, glucocorticoid treatment and other health outcomes in CAH adults.

Methods

Cross-sectional analysis of 151 adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency aged 18–69 years in whom QoL (assessed using the Short Form Health Survey), glucocorticoid regimen, anthropometric and metabolic measures were recorded. Relationships were examined between QoL, type of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone) and dose of glucocorticoid expressed as prednisolone dose equivalent (PreDEq). QoL was expressed as z-scores calculated from matched controls (14 430 subjects from UK population). Principal components analysis (PCA) was undertaken to identify clusters of associated clinical and biochemical features and the principal component (PC) scores used in regression analysis as predictor of QoL.

Results

QoL scores were associated with type of glucocorticoid treatment for vitality (P=0.002) and mental health (P=0.011), with higher z-scores indicating better QoL in patients on hydrocortisone monotherapy (P<0.05). QoL did not relate to PreDEq or mutation severity. PCA identified three PCs (PC1, disease control; PC2, adiposity and insulin resistance and PC3, blood pressure and mutations) that explained 61% of the variance in observed variables. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that PC2, reflecting adiposity and insulin resistance (waist circumference, serum triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HDL-cholesterol), related to QoL scores, specifically impaired physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, Physical Component Summary Score (P<0.001) and vitality (P=0.002).

Conclusions

Increased adiposity, insulin resistance and use of prednisolone or dexamethasone are associated with impaired QoL in adults with CAH. Intervention trials are required to establish whether choice of glucocorticoid treatment and/or weight loss can improve QoL in CAH adults.

Full access

Gerard Conway, Didier Dewailly, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Hector F Escobar-Morreale, Steven Franks, Alessandra Gambineri, Fahrettin Kelestimur, Djuro Macut, Dragan Micic, Renato Pasquali, Marija Pfeifer, Duarte Pignatelli, Michel Pugeat and Bulent O Yildiz

Background

There is evidence for differences between endocrinologists and other specialists in their approach to diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Objective

A mailed survey consisting of a simple questionnaire aiming to understand current practice for diagnosis and management of the PCOS by specialists across Europe.

Methods

The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions grouped to achieve information on i) the general characteristics of the respondents, ii) patients with PCOS seen by endocrinologists, iii) the main diagnostic criteria, iv) biochemical parameters used in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism, v) long-term concerns, and, finally vi) treatment choices. A total of 357 questionnaires representing 13.3% of the members of European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) were available for final analysis; 93% of the respondents were endocrinologists

Results

In relation to the diagnostic criteria, respondents were most likely to select menstrual irregularity as the most frequent criteria used for the diagnosis of PCOS although very high rates were achieved for the use of hirsutism and biochemical hyperandrogenism. It therefore appears that the NIH criteria were followed by the majority of respondents. The most frequent biochemical parameters in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism were total testosterone or free androgen index. Obesity and type 2 diabetes were regarded as the principal long-term concerns for PCOS. The most common treatments for patients with PCOS were metformin (33%), lifestyle modification (25%), and oral contraceptives (22%). More direct treatments of infertility include clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with metformin, prescribed by 9 and 23%, respectively, whereas only 6% used other methods for induction of ovulation.

Conclusion

The survey produced by ESE is a good start for evaluating the perspective in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS by endocrinologists in Europe.

Full access

Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen, Gerard S Conway, Olaf M Dekkers, Mitchell E Geffner, Karen O Klein, Angela E Lin, Nelly Mauras, Charmian A Quigley, Karen Rubin, David E Sandberg, Theo C J Sas, Michael Silberbach, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Kirstine Stochholm, Janielle A van Alfen-van derVelden, Joachim Woelfle, Philippe F Backeljauw and On behalf of the International Turner Syndrome Consensus Group

Turner syndrome affects 25–50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016. Prior to this meeting, five groups each addressed important areas in TS care: 1) diagnostic and genetic issues, 2) growth and development during childhood and adolescence, 3) congenital and acquired cardiovascular disease, 4) transition and adult care, and 5) other comorbidities and neurocognitive issues. These groups produced proposals for the present guidelines. Additionally, four pertinent questions were submitted for formal GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) evaluation with a separate systematic review of the literature. These four questions related to the efficacy and most optimal treatment of short stature, infertility, hypertension, and hormonal replacement therapy. The guidelines project was initiated by the European Society of Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society, in collaboration with the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the Endocrine Society, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, the American Heart Association, the Society for Endocrinology, and the European Society of Cardiology. The guideline has been formally endorsed by the European Society of Endocrinology, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the Endocrine Society. Advocacy groups appointed representatives who participated in pre-meeting discussions and in the consensus meeting.