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G Neil Thomas, C Mary Schooling, Sarah M McGhee, Sai-Yin Ho, Bernard M Y Cheung, Nelson M Wat, Edward D Janus and Tai Hing Lam

Group-author : for the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study Steering Committee

Background: The use of fasting and post-prandial glucose levels in the classification of hyperglycaemic states often identifies distinct subjects, but the factors determining these intermediate-isolated glucose intolerant states are yet to be clearly elucidated in Chinese subjects.

Methods: Representative subjects (n = 2769) were randomly recruited from the Hong Kong Chinese population and glycaemic status was determined using both fasting and 2h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test glucose levels. The relationship between the groups with isolated glucose intolerance and vascular risk factors was investigated using ANOVA and logistic regression analyses.

Results: Using either criterion, diabetes was identified in 265 (9.6%) subjects and glucose intolerance in 568 (20.5%) subjects. Of those 568, isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using the post-load criterion was identified in 49.5% and isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in 30.5%. Ageing and hyperinsulinaemia were common determinants of IGT and IFG; with small hip circumference a marker of poorer early life development and being born in China rather than Hong Kong, a possible low birth weight marker was also associated with IFG. Hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and poor education were also associated with IGT. When we looked for factors differentially associated with these glucose intolerant states, female sex, greater hip circumference, high triglyceride levels, low fasting insulin levels, and not being born in China were independently associated with isolated IGT compared with isolated IFG.

Conclusion: Despite common antecedents to the glucose intolerant states, isolated IFG appeared to be particularly associated with early life development, and isolated IGT was more strongly associated with obesity-related determinants such as hypertriglyceridaemia.

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Antiopi Ntouva, Konstantinos A Toulis, Deepikshana Keerthy, Nicola J Adderley, Wasim Hanif, Rasiah Thayakaran, Krishna Gokhale, G Neil Thomas, Kamlesh Khunti, Abd A Tahrani and Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar


Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Any factor that incrementally increases this risk should be taken into account when individualising treatment. Hypoglycaemia is a common complication of antidiabetes medications and suggested as a risk factor for fractures; yet, its real-life clinical impact is unclear.


A population-based, retrospective open cohort study using routinely collected data between 1st of January 1995 and 1st of May 2016 in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database.


Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with documented hypoglycaemic events were compared to randomly matched patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without documented hypoglycaemic events matched to exposed patients on age, sex, duration of diabetes and BMI. The primary outcome was any incident fracture. Secondary outcome was incident fragility (osteoporotic) fracture.


A total of 41 163 patients with type 2 diabetes were included: 14 147 patients in the exposed cohort and 27 016 patients in the unexposed cohort. Patients with a documented hypoglycaemic event were significantly more likely to sustain any fracture compared to patients with no record of hypoglycaemic events: adjusted IRR = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.12–1.30; P < 0.0001). Patients who had a documented hypoglycaemic event were significantly more likely to suffer a fragility fracture compared to controls: adjusted IRR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13–1.37; P < 0.0001).


Hypoglycaemic events are a significant risk factor for fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. This observation is clinically relevant when individualising targets for glycaemic control and selecting antidiabetic agents.