Rougin Khalil, Leen Antonio, Michaël R Laurent, Karel David, Na Ri Kim, Pieter Evenepoel, Anton Eisenhauer, Alexander Heuser, Etienne Cavalier, Sundeep Khosla, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren and Brigitte Decallonne
Long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) negatively influences bone. The short-term effects on bone and mineral homeostasis are less known. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the early effects of ADT on calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover.
Prospective cohort study.
Eugonadal adult, male sex offenders, who were referred for ADT to the endocrine outpatient clinic, received cyproterone acetate. Changes in blood markers of calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone turnover between baseline and first follow-up visit were studied.
Of 26 screened patients, 17 were included. The median age was 44 (range 20–75) years. The median time interval between baseline and first follow-up was 13 (6–27) weeks. Compared to baseline, an 81% decrease was observed for median total testosterone (to 3.4 nmol/L (0.4–12.2); P < 0.0001) and free testosterone (to 0.06 nmol/L (0.01–0.18); P < 0.0001). Median total estradiol decreased by 71% (to 17.6 pmol/L (4.7–35.6); P < 0.0001). Increased serum calcium (P < 0.0001) and phosphate (P = 0.0016) was observed, paralleled by decreased PTH (P = 0.0156) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (P = 0.0134). The stable calcium isotope ratio (δ44/42Ca) decreased (P = 0.0458), indicating net calcium loss from bone. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0056, respectively), periostin tended to decrease (P = 0.0500), whereas sclerostin increased (P < 0.0001), indicating suppressed bone formation. Serum bone resorption markers (TRAP, CTX) were unaltered.
In adult men, calcium release from the skeleton occurs early following sex steroid deprivation, reflecting early bone resorption. The increase of sclerostin and reduction of bone formation markers, without changes in resorption markers, suggests a dominant negative effect on bone formation in the acute phase.
Steven Boonen, Stephen R Pye, Terence W O'Neill, Pawel Szulc, Evelien Gielen, Herman Borghs, Sabine Verschueren, Frank Claessens, Judith E Adams, Kate A Ward, Gyorgy Bartfai, Felipe Casanueva, Joseph D Finn, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Thang S Han, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Krzysztof Kula, Fernand Labrie, Michael E J Lean, Neil Pendleton, Margus Punab, Alan J Silman, Abdelouahid Tajar, Frederick C W Wu, Dirk Vanderschueren and the EMAS Group
To assess the influence of sex hormones on markers of bone turnover and to explore the association between these markers and bone health in middle-aged and elderly European men.
A cross-sectional population-based survey.
Men aged 40–79 years were recruited from population registers in eight European centres. Subjects completed a postal questionnaire which included questions concerning lifestyle and were invited to undergo quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and to provide a fasting blood sample from which the bone markers serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) and crosslinks (β C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (β-cTX)), total testosterone, total oestradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and lumbar spine was performed in two centres.
A total of 3120, mean age 59.9 years (s.d.=11.0) were included. After adjustment for centre, age, height, weight, lifestyle factors, season and other hormones, total and free E2 were negatively associated with β-cTX but not P1NP while SHBG, IGF1 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were positively associated with both β-cTX and P1NP. Total or free testosterone was not independently associated with either bone marker. After the same adjustments, higher levels of both bone markers were significantly associated with lower QUS parameters and lower DXA-assessed bone density at the total hip and lumbar spine.
E2, SHBG, IGF1 and PTH contribute significantly to the regulation/rate of bone turnover in middle-aged and older European men. Higher rates of bone remodelling are negatively associated with male bone health.