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  • Author: Francesco D'Antonio x
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Valentina Chiavaroli, Marco Liberati, Francesco D'Antonio, Fabio Masuccio, Rita Capanna, Alberto Verrotti, Francesco Chiarelli and Angelika Mohn

Objective

GNRH analog (GNRHa) therapy has not been supported by beneficial effects on adult stature in girls with early puberty. Furthermore, an increased prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been described in girls treated for central precocious puberty. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of cardiometabolic dysfunctions and infertility. Our aim was to assess GNRHa effectiveness on reaching adult stature and the risk of PCOS in girls with early puberty.

Design

Longitudinal study of GNRHa-treated and GNRHa-untreated girls at baseline and at final height.

Methods

Twenty-five GNRHa-treated girls and 55 controls were compared. Insulin resistance (IR; homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and glucose-to-insulin ratio (G/I)), the effect of GNRHa on final height, and the prevalence of PCOS were assessed.

Results

In GNRHa-treated girls, no significant difference was found between predicted final height and final height, whereas a significant difference was detected in untreated girls (P=0.0001). At final height, GNRHa-treated girls showed higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I (P=0.03 for both) as well as higher DHEAS and androstenedione levels (P=0.02 and P=0.01 respectively) than untreated girls. The prevalence of PCOS and hyperandrogenemia was significantly higher in GNRHa-treated adolescents than in untreated adolescents (36 and 14.5% respectively, P=0.04; 56 and 23.6% respectively, P=0.01). Finally, gonadotropin-suppressive therapy was significantly related to PCOS during adolescence (P=0.03).

Conclusions

In girls with early puberty, GNRHa therapy is associated with the achievement of predicted final height; nevertheless, this treatment seems to act as an independent risk factor for the development of PCOS already during adolescence.

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Alessandra Cassio, Emanuele Cacciari, Antonia D'Errico, Antonio Balsamo, Franco W. Grigioni, Maria G. Pascucci, Francesco Bacci, Moreno Tacconi and Antonio M. Mancini

Abstract.

Gonadal histology was investigated by means of conventional microscopy in 6 patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, in 11 with incomplete androgen insensitivity syndrome, and in 3 with 5α-reductase syndrome. Twelve subjects were prepubertal and 8 pubertal. In all patients gonadal tissue was removed as a prophylactic measure and no patients gave rise to any clinical suspicion of a tumour. Eight patients with incomplete androgen insensitivity syndrome, 5 of whom (62.5%) were prepubertal, showed intratubular germ cell neoplasia and in 6 of them it was bilateral. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis showed considerable agreement between atypical morphological aspects and positive response to Schiff's periodic acid and to staining with the anti-placenta alkaline phosphatase antibody. Our patients were characterized by one of the highest reported incidences of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, particularly at prepubertal age. These findings would seem to indicate that a rethink is needed concerning the general opinion that patients with androgen intensivity syndrome have practically no risk of developing malignancy, and that orchidectomy is not advisable before puberty is completed.

Free access

Basilio Pintaudi, Giacoma Di Vieste, Francesco Corrado, Giuseppe Lucisano, Fabio Pellegrini, Loretta Giunta, Antonio Nicolucci, Rosario D'Anna and Antonino Di Benedetto

Objective

This study aimed to assess the predictive value of risk factors (RFs) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) established by selective screening (SS) and to identify subgroups of women at a higher risk of developing GDM.

Design

A retrospective, single-center study design was employed.

Methods

Data of 1015 women screened for GDM at 24–28 weeks of gestation and diagnosed according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria were evaluated. Information on RFs established by SS was also collected and their association with GDM was determined. To identify distinct and homogeneous subgroups of patients at a higher risk, the RECursive Partitioning and AMalgamation (RECPAM) method was used.

Results

Overall, 113 (11.1%) women were diagnosed as having GDM. The application of the SS criteria would result in the execution of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 58.3% of women and 26 (23.0%) cases of GDM would not be detected due to the absence of any RF. The RECPAM analysis identified high-risk subgroups characterized by fasting plasma glucose values >5.1 mmol/l (odds ratio (OR)=26.5; 95% CI 14.3–49.0) and pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=7.0; 95% CI 3.9–12.8 for overweight women). In a final logistic model including RECPAM classes, previous macrosomia (OR=3.6; 95% CI 1.1–11.6), and family history of diabetes (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8), but not maternal age, were also found to be associated with an increased risk of developing GDM. A screening approach based on the RECPAM model would reduce by over 50% (23.0 vs 10.6%) the number of undiagnosed GDM cases when compared with the current SS approach, at the expense of 50 additional OGTTs required.

Conclusions

A screening approach based on our RECPAM model results in a significant reduction in the number of undetected GDM cases compared with the current SS procedure.