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Basilio Pintaudi, Giacoma Di Vieste, Francesco Corrado, Giuseppe Lucisano, Fabio Pellegrini, Loretta Giunta, Antonio Nicolucci, Rosario D'Anna, and Antonino Di Benedetto

Objective

This study aimed to assess the predictive value of risk factors (RFs) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) established by selective screening (SS) and to identify subgroups of women at a higher risk of developing GDM.

Design

A retrospective, single-center study design was employed.

Methods

Data of 1015 women screened for GDM at 24–28 weeks of gestation and diagnosed according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria were evaluated. Information on RFs established by SS was also collected and their association with GDM was determined. To identify distinct and homogeneous subgroups of patients at a higher risk, the RECursive Partitioning and AMalgamation (RECPAM) method was used.

Results

Overall, 113 (11.1%) women were diagnosed as having GDM. The application of the SS criteria would result in the execution of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 58.3% of women and 26 (23.0%) cases of GDM would not be detected due to the absence of any RF. The RECPAM analysis identified high-risk subgroups characterized by fasting plasma glucose values >5.1 mmol/l (odds ratio (OR)=26.5; 95% CI 14.3–49.0) and pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=7.0; 95% CI 3.9–12.8 for overweight women). In a final logistic model including RECPAM classes, previous macrosomia (OR=3.6; 95% CI 1.1–11.6), and family history of diabetes (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.8), but not maternal age, were also found to be associated with an increased risk of developing GDM. A screening approach based on the RECPAM model would reduce by over 50% (23.0 vs 10.6%) the number of undiagnosed GDM cases when compared with the current SS approach, at the expense of 50 additional OGTTs required.

Conclusions

A screening approach based on our RECPAM model results in a significant reduction in the number of undetected GDM cases compared with the current SS procedure.

Free access

Annalisa Brozzetti, Stefania Marzotti, Cristina Tortoioli, Vittorio Bini, Roberta Giordano, Francesco Dotta, Corrado Betterle, Annamaria De Bellis, Giorgio Arnaldi, Vincenzo Toscano, Emanuela Arvat, Antonio Bellastella, Franco Mantero, and Alberto Falorni

Objective

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) gene polymorphism has been associated with human autoimmune diseases, but discordant data are available on its association with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). We tested the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent association of CTLA4+49 (A/G) (Ala 17) and/or CTLA4 CT60 (A/G) polymorphism with AAD.

Design

DNA samples from 180 AAD patients and 394 healthy control subjects from continental Italy were analyzed, and association statistical analyses and meta-analysis of published studies were performed.

Methods

TaqMan minor groove binder chemistry assays and PCR fragment length polymorphism assays were used.

Results

Frequency of allele G of CTLA4+49 was significantly increased among AAD patients (40% alleles) than among healthy controls (27% alleles; P<0.0001). CTLA4 CT60 polymorphism was associated with AAD only in the heterozygous A/G individuals. The frequency of +49 AG+GG genotypes was significantly higher among AAD patients than among healthy control subjects, in both a co-dominant (P<0.0001) and G dominant model (P<0.0001). CTLA4+49 allele G was significantly associated with disease risk in both patients with isolated AAD and in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CTLA4+49 allele G was positively associated with AAD (P<0.0001, odds ratio (OR)=2.43, 95% confidence interval=1.54–3.86) also after correction for DRB1*03-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201, DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, and sex. Meta-analysis of five studies revealed a significant association of CTLA4+49 allele G with AAD (P<0.0001) with an overall OR of 1.48 (1.28–1.71).

Conclusions

The CTLA4+49 polymorphism is strongly associated with genetic risk for AAD, independently from the well-known association with HLA class II genes.