The development of rhythmic melatonin secretion in full-term neonates seems to occur at about 12 weeks of age, but activity of the pineal gland from 1 to 12 weeks of age is not well documented. To determine whether the pineal gland actively secretes melatonin and reacts to photoperiodic information during this period, we analyzed 45 full-term infants exposed to continuous artificial light during 24, 48 and 72 h after birth for treatment of hyperbilirubinemia. During this light treatment, the eyes of the neonates were completely covered to avoid damage, thus the infants were under continuous light deprivation. Phototherapy significantly decreased plasma bilirubin during treatment. With regard to pineal gland activity, the shortest period of light deprivation tested, 24 h, significantly increased plasma melatonin levels from 152.66±11.57 to 244.86±19.49 ng/l (mean±sem; p<0.001). The other periods tested, 48 and 72 h of light deprivation, led to similar percentages of melatonin stimulation. These results suggest that the pineal gland of neonates, before displaying rhythmic metabolic activity, is sensitive to changes in environmental illumination, indicating maturity of some features of suprachiasmatic nuclei function.
F Jaldo-Alba, A Muñóz-Hoyos, A Molina-Carballo, JA Molina-Font and D Acuña-Castroviejo
MT Munoz, G Morande, JA Garcia-Centenera, F Hervas, J Pozo and J Argente
OBJECTIVE: Profound osteopenia is a serious complication of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this work was to study the effect of prolonged AN on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine whether oral estrogen administration prevents bone loss in women with this disorder. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight amenorrheic women with AN (mean age: 17.3 years) were treated with estrogen (50 microg of ethinyl estradiol) and gestagen (0.5 mg of norgestrel) during 1 year. Clinical variations, biochemical indices and BMD were studied at three different time points, including after a period of amenorrhea of at least 12 months (n=38), after the administration of estrogens for 1 year (n=22), and after a 1-year follow-up period (n=12). RESULTS: Initial mean BMD was significantly lower than normal (-2.1+/-0.8 s.d.) and less than -2.5 s.d. below normal in 38% of the women with AN. The estrogen-treated group had no significant change in BMD even after the follow-up period and partial recovery of weight. Estradiol and total IGF-I levels were significantly lower throughout the study. All subjects had normal thyroxine (T(4)) and TSH levels and calcium metabolism. However, total tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) was decreased in all anorexic subjects in the first and second study points and were within normal limits after the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Estrogen replacement alone cannot prevent progressive osteopenia in young women with AN. (2) Other factors, such as the loss of weight, the duration of the amenorrhea and the low levels of total insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) could contribute to the loss of bone mass in women with this disorder.
M A Donoso, M T Muñoz-Calvo, V Barrios, G Garrido, F Hawkins and J Argente
Ballet dancers (BDs) have a negative energy balance related to physical training that results in alterations in body composition, sexual development, and adipokine secretion. Our aims were to study anthropometric parameters, body composition, and their relationship with adipokines throughout pubertal development.
Subjects and methods
We carried out a prospective follow-up study of 22 female Caucasian BDs (Tanner II stage) followed throughout puberty. Nutritional status was determined by measurement of height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). We calculated growth velocity, bone maturity, and body composition at Tanner stages II, III, and V by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Circulating leptin, adiponectin, and soluble leptin receptor (sObR) levels were determined.
BDs presented a delay in skeletal maturation during puberty, without affectation of final height. Energy intake was deficient according to their physical exercise, and they had a delay of 1 year in the mean age of menarche. Leptin levels were decreased, whereas sObR and adiponectin levels were increased throughout puberty. The percentage of trunk fat, total fat mass, and fat of the extremities was decreased throughout the study period (P<0.01). Lean mass was increased in the lower extremities, and bone mineral density was normal.
A negative energy balance together with maintained physical exercise induced modifications in body composition in BDs. Changes in leptin and adiponectin levels appear to be more related to total fat content than to BMI. Furthermore, the onset and delayed progress of puberty may be related with an inadequate energy balance due to increased exercise.
A Chaitou, S Boutroy, N Vilayphiou, A Varennes, M Richard, S Blaizot, F Munoz, P D Delmas, J Goudable, R Chapurlat and P Szulc
In the elderly, vitamin D deficit, low calcium intake, and impaired bone microarchitecture are associated with higher risk of hip fracture. We assessed the association of bone microarchitecture with calcium intake and serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in men.
Cross-sectional analysis was performed in 1064 men aged 20–87 years not taking vitamin D or calcium supplements.
Daily calcium intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Bone microarchitecture was assessed at distal radius and tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We measured serum and urinary levels of biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs). Statistical models were adjusted for age, weight, height, and glomerular filtration rate.
In 500 men aged <65 years, lower 25OHD levels and low calcium intake were associated with lower trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (Dtrab) at the distal tibia, due to lower trabecular number (Tb.N). Low calcium intake was associated with lower cortical thickness (Ct.Th). Higher PTH level was associated with higher BTM levels. In 563 men aged ≥65 years, the highest PTH quartile was associated with lower Ct.Th (tibia), lower Dtrab (both sites), and lower Tb.N (radius) compared with the lowest quartile. Low calcium intake was associated with lower Tb.N and more heterogenous trabecular distribution. BTM positively correlated with the PTH concentration.
In older men, elevated PTH concentration is associated with high bone turnover, poor trabecular microarchitecture (radius and tibia), and, at the distal tibia, lower Ct.Th. Low calcium intake is associated with lower Tb.N and more heterogenous trabecular distribution.
Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Donaji V Gómez Velasco, Olimpia Arellano Campos, Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla, Magdalena del Rocío Sevilla-González, Tannia Viveros Ruiz, Alexandro J Martagón Rosado, Claudia J Bautista, Liliana Muñoz Hernandez, Ivette Cruz-Bautista, Hortensia Moreno-Macias, Alicia Huerta-Chagoya, Karen Guadalupe Rodríguez-Álvarez, Geoffrey A Walford, Suzanne B R Jacobs, Luz E Guillen Pineda, Ma Luisa Ordoñez-Sánchez, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez, Joaquín Azpiroz, Jannette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Patricia Clark, Miguel F Herrera-Hernández, Elena Zambrano, Jose C Florez, María Teresa Tusié Luna and Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas
A haplotype at chromosome 17p13 that reduces expression and function of the solute carrier transporter SLC16A11 is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes in Mexicans. We aim to investigate the detailed metabolic profile of SLC16A11 risk haplotype carriers to identify potential physiological mechanisms explaining the increased type 2 diabetes risk.
We evaluated carriers (n = 72) and non-carriers (n = 75) of the SLC16A11 risk haplotype, with or without type 2 diabetes. An independent sample of 1069 subjects was used to replicate biochemical findings. The evaluation included euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), MRI and spectroscopy and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies.
Fat-free mass (FFM)-adjusted M value was lower in carriers of the SLC16A11 risk haplotype after adjusting for age and type 2 diabetes status (β = −0.164, P = 0.04). Subjects with type 2 diabetes and the risk haplotype demonstrated an increase of 8.76 U/L in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P = 0.02) and of 7.34 U/L in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (P = 0.05) compared with non-carriers and after adjusting for gender, age and ancestry. Among women with the risk haplotype and normal BMI, the adipocyte size was higher (P < 0.001).
Individuals carrying the SLC16A11 risk haplotype exhibited decreased insulin action. Higher serum ALT and GGT levels were found in carriers with type 2 diabetes, and larger adipocytes in subcutaneous fat in the size distribution in carrier women with normal weight.