OBJECTIVE: A prospective randomized trial was performed to assess the usefulness of iodine supplementation in the prevention of goiter in pregnant women living in marginally iodine-deficient areas. DESIGN: Eighty-six pregnant women were recruited and randomized in two groups and treated daily for up to six months after delivery with 200 microg iodide (group A) or 50 microg iodide (group B). Sixty-seven women (32 in group A and 35 in group B) completed the study. METHODS: Thyroid volume (TV), thyroid functional parameters and urinary iodine concentration were determined in all subjects at booking, at the 18th-26th, and the 29th-33rd week of gestation, and at the 3rd and 6th month after delivery. RESULTS: A slight but not significant increase in TV during gestation was observed only in group B. After delivery a progressive decrease in TV was documented in both groups, the final TV being significantly reduced with respect to the initial volume in group A. No significant changes in serum free thyroid hormones and TSH concentrations were found during gestation in either group. Postpartum thyroiditis was observed in 5 women (2 in group A, 3 in group B). No side effects were seen. CONCLUSION: The present data indicate that in marginally iodine-deficient areas, the administration of iodide is recommended in pregnancy and lactation. In the conditions of the present trial a dose of 50 microg iodide/day is a safe and effective measure in preventing an increase in TV during pregnancy but a dose of 200 microg iodide/day appeared to be more effective without inducing side effects and without enhancing the frequency of post-partum thyroiditis.
L Antonangeli, D Maccherini, R Cavaliere, C Di Giulio, B Reinhardt, A Pinchera and F Aghini-Lombardi
E. Martino, S. Grasso, G. Bambini, G. Pardo, P. Vitti, F. Aghini-Lombardi and A. Pinchera
Abstract. The ontogeny of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in pancreata of human foetuses from 15–36 weeks of gestation and of infants has been studied. TRH was detectable in the pancreas of a 15 week old foetus; a progressive increase of pancreatic TRH content was observed until the 34th week of gestation, whereas a progressive decrease was found in the late period of pregnancy and in 1 year old infants. In contrast, the pancreatic insulin content showed a progressive increase during the entire pregnancy and in the first year after birth. These data indicate that TRH and insulin have different ontogenetic patterns in the human pancreas.
F Aghini-Lombardi, A Pinchera, L Antonangeli, T Rago, GF Fenzi, P Nanni and P Vitti
It is well established that iodine supplementation is effective in correcting iodine deficiency and reducing goiter prevalence. In Italy, legislation has allowed the production of iodized salt since 1972, but its consumption is on a voluntary basis. In the present study, the efficacy of legislative measures that made compulsory the availability of iodized salt in foodstores has been evaluated. Urinary iodine excretion and thyroid size, scored according to Pan American Health Organization recommendations, were determined prior to (1981) and 10 years after (1991) the introduction of legislative measures in the whole schoolchildren population residing in a restricted area of the Tuscan Appennines. Moreover, in 1991, thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. In 1981, mean urinary iodine excretion was 47.1±22.4 mg/kg creatinine (0.412 μmol/l) and goiter prevalence was 60%, indicating a moderate iodine deficiency. Eighty of the families subsequently used iodized salt on a regular basis; as a result of this excellent compliance, in 1991 the mean urinary iodine excretion increased to 129.7±73 mg/kg creatinine (1.24 μmol/l) and goiter prevalence dropped to 8.1%. The results of this study underline the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in correcting iodine deficiency and abating endemic goiter in schoolchildren, and suggest that implementation of measures that make compulsory the availability of iodized salt in foodstores overcomes the fact that there is no law governing the exclusive production and trading of iodized salt.
E. Martino, L. Bartalena, S. Mariotti, F. Aghini-Lombardi, C. Ceccarelli, F. Lippi, M. Piga, A. Loviselli, L. Braverman, M. Safran and A. Pinchera
Abstract. Amiodarone, an iodine-rich drug, represents at the present, at least in Europe, one of the most common sources of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. The drug may induce both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. In spite of the large iodine intake occurring during amiodarone therapy, 131I thyroid uptake is detectable in patients with amiodarone-iodine-induced hypothyroidism, irrespective of the presence or absence of underlying thyroid disease. In contrast, in patients with amiodarone-iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis, 131I thyroid uptake is normal or even elevated in those with co-existent underlying thyroid disorders, whereas it is very low in those with an apparently normal thyroid gland. Perchlorate discharge test was performed in 8 patients with hypothyroidism and in 5 patients with hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone: a positive test was found in all hypothyroid patients and a negative test in all hyperthyroid patients.