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Haixia Guan, Nathalie Silva de Morais, Jessica Stuart, Sara Ahmadi, Ellen Marqusee, Mathew I Kim, and Erik K. Alexander

Objective

To investigate the concordance of serologic and sonographic evidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with its gold standard histopathologic identification.

Design

We performed a retrospective analysis on a cohort of 825 consecutive patients in whom TPOAb and thyroid ultrasound were performed, and in whom thyroid nodule evaluation led to surgical and histopathologic analysis. The presence or absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on histopathology was correlated with serologic and sonographic markers. We further assessed the impact of low versus high titers of TPOAb upon this concordance.

Results

Of 825 patients, 277 (33.5%) had histologic confirmation of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, 235 patients (28.4%) had elevated serum levels of TPOAb, and 197 (23.8%) had sonographic evidence of diffuse heterogeneity. Of those with histopathologic evidence, only 64% had elevated TPOAb (sensitivity: 63.9%; specificity: 89.4%), while only 49% were sonographically diffusely heterogeneous (sensitivity: 49.1%; specificity: 88.9%). A subset of only 102 of 277 (37%) with histologically proven Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was positive for both TPOAb and diffusely heterogeneous. Concordance analysis demonstrated that TPOAb and histopathology had higher agreement (κ = 0.55) than did ultrasound and histopathology (κ = 0.40) for the diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Higher titers of TPOAb correlated with a higher likelihood of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, with a best cutoff of 2.11-fold the upper normal level of TPOAb.

Conclusion

Only moderate concordance exists between serological evidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and histopathologic findings, though it increases with higher TPOAb concentration. Diffuse heterogeneity on ultrasound is a less-sensitive diagnostic tool than elevated TPOAb.

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Hanneke M van Santen, Erik K Alexander, Scott A Rivkees, Eva Frey, Sarah C Clement, Miranda P Dierselhuis, Chantal A Lebbink, Thera P Links, Kerstin Lorenz, Robin P Peeters, Christoph Reiners, Menno R Vriens, Paul Nathan, Arthur B Schneider, and Frederik Verburg

The incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has increased rapidly over the past several years. Thus far, the only conclusively established risk factor for developing DTC is exposure to ionizing radiation, especially when the exposure occurs in childhood. Since the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) is increasing due to improvements in treatment and supportive care, the number of patients who will develop DTC after surviving childhood cancer (secondary thyroid cancer) is also expected to rise. Currently, there are no recommendations for management of thyroid cancer specifically for patients who develop DTC as a consequence of cancer therapy during childhood. Since complications or late effects from prior cancer treatment may elevate the risk of toxicity from DTC therapy, the medical history of CCS should be considered carefully in choosing DTC treatment. In this paper, we emphasize how the occurrence and treatment of the initial childhood malignancy affects the medical and psychosocial factors that will play a role in the diagnosis and treatment of a secondary DTC. We present considerations for clinicians to use in the management of patients with secondary DTC, based on the available evidence combined with experience-based opinions of the authors.