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Jeffrey D Covington, Sudip Bajpeyi, Cedric Moro, Yourka D Tchoukalova, Philip J Ebenezer, David H Burk, Eric Ravussin, and Leanne M Redman

Objective

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reduced adipose tissue lipolysis that can be rescued by aerobic exercise. We aimed to identify differences in the gene expression of perilipins and associated targets in adipose tissue in women with PCOS before and after exercise.

Design and methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study in eight women with PCOS and eight women matched for BMI and age with normal cycles. Women with PCOS also completed a 16-week prospective aerobic exercise-training study. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and primary adipose-derived stromal/stem cell cultures were established from women with PCOS before 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training (n=5) and controls (n=5). Gene expression was measured using real-time PCR, in vitro lipolysis was measured using radiolabeled oleate, and perilipin 3 (PLIN3) protein content was measured by western blotting analysis.

Results

The expression of PLIN1, PLIN3, and PLIN5, along with coatomers ARF1, ARFRP1, and βCOP was ∼80% lower in women with PCOS (all P<0.05). Following exercise training, PLIN3 was the only perilipin to increase significantly (P<0.05), along with coatomers ARF1, ARFRP1, βCOP, and SEC23A (all P<0.05). Furthermore, PLIN3 protein expression was undetectable in the cell cultures from women with PCOS vs controls. Following exercise training, in vitro adipose oleate oxidation, glycerol secretion, and PLIN3 protein expression were increased, along with reductions in triglyceride content and absence of large lipid droplet morphology.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that PLIN3 and coatomer GTPases are important regulators of lipolysis and triglyceride storage in the adipose tissue of women with PCOS.

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Kara L Marlatt, Dragana Lovre, Robbie A Beyl, Chandra R Tate, Evelyn K Hayes, Charles F Burant, Eric Ravussin, and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

Objective:

Combining conjugated estrogens (CE) with the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (BZA) is a novel, orally administered menopausal therapy. We investigated the effect of CE/BZA on insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and serum metabolome in postmenopausal women with obesity.

Design:

Randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot trial with washout was conducted at Pennington Biomedical Research Center. Eight postmenopausal women (age 50–60 years, BMI 30–40 kg/m2) were randomized to 8 weeks CE/BZA or placebo. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp). Secondary outcomes included body composition (DXA); resting metabolic rate (RMR); substrate oxidation (indirect calorimetry); ectopic lipids (1H-MRS); fat cell size, adipose and skeletal muscle gene expression (biopsies); serum inflammatory markers; and serum metabolome (LC/MS).

Results:

CE/BZA treatment produced no detectable effect on insulin sensitivity, body composition, ectopic fat, fat cell size, or substrate oxidation, but resulted in a non-significant increase in RMR (basal: P = 0.06; high-dose clamp: P = 0.08) compared to placebo. CE/BZA increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. CE/BZA also increased serum diacylglycerol (DAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) species containing long-chain saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) and decreased long-chain acylcarnitines, possibly reflecting increased hepatic de novo FA synthesis and esterification into TAGs for export into very low-density lipoproteins, as well as decreased FA oxidation, respectively (P < 0.05). CE/BZA increased serum phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, ceramides, and sphingomyelins, possibly reflecting the increase in serum lipoproteins (P < 0.05).

Conclusions:

A short treatment of obese postmenopausal women with CE/BZA does not alter insulin action or ectopic fat but increases serum markers of hepatic de novo lipogenesis and TAG production.