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Eric Grouzmann, Laurence Drouard-Troalen, Eric Baudin, Pierre-François Plouin, Beat Muller, Daniela Grand and Thierry Buclin

Background

Plasma free and urinary metanephrines are recognized biomarkers for the assessment of pheochromocytoma. Plasma total metanephrines with a long half-life may represent another useful biomarker.

Objective

The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performances of plasma total metanephrines alone or combined with free metanephrines and fractionated 24-h urinary metanephrines.

Methods

A retrospective, case–control diagnostic test study was conducted between 1999 and 2007 in two university hospitals in Switzerland and two institutions in France. The patients included 46 cases with histologically proven pheochromocytoma, and 181 controls suspected of tumor with negative investigations and 3-year follow-up. None had renal dysfunction. Sensitivity and specificity were compared after expressing each measurement result as a ratio over its upper reference limit, adding the ratios of normetanephrine and metanephrine, and defining cut-off values of 1 or 2 for this sum.

Results

Applying a cut-off value of 1, plasma free and total metanephrines and urinary fractionated metanephrines had similar sensitivities of 96% (95% confidence interval, 86–99%), 95% (85–99%), and 95% (84–99%) along with similar specificities of 89% (83–94%), 91% (84–95%), and 86% (80–91%). A cut-off of 2 for the sum of ratios over reference limit improves the specificity, and it can be used for a confirmation test based on another biomarker taken among the three biomarkers.

Conclusion

All three metanephrine-based tests perform equivalently for diagnosing pheochromocytoma in the absence of renal insufficiency, and can be conveniently associated two by two for confirming/excluding tumor.

Free access

Jean-Benoît Corcuff, Jacques Young, Pauline Masquefa-Giraud, Philippe Chanson, Eric Baudin and Antoine Tabarin

Context

Severe Cushing's syndrome elicited by ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) or adrenal carcinoma (ACC) can threaten life in the short term. The effectiveness of oral administration of the inhibitors of steroidogenesis ketoconazole and metyrapone in this situation is poorly described.

Objective

To report the short-term effectiveness and tolerability of metyrapone and ketoconazole elicited either by EAS or by ACC in patients exhibiting severe hypercortisolism.

Design

Retrospective analysis of data obtained for patients with urinary free cortisol (UFC) level estimated to be fivefold the upper limit of the normal range (ULN).

Patients and settings

A total of 14 patients with EAS and eight with ACC treated in two tertiary-care university hospitals.

Intervention

Metyrapone and ketoconazole treatment in combination (along with symptomatic treatments for co-morbidities).

Main outcome

Evolution of clinically relevant endpoints (blood pressure, kalaemia and glycaemia) and biological intensity of hypercortisolism 1 week and 1 month after starting steroidogenesis inhibition.

Results

After 1 week of treatment, median UFC fell from 40.0 to 3.2 ULN and from 16.0 to 1.0 ULN in patients with EAS and ACC respectively. Median UFC after 1 month of treatment was 0.5 and 1.0 ULN in patients with EAS and ACC respectively and UFC values were normal in 73 and 86% of patients respectively. Clinical status improved dramatically along with kalaemia, glycaemia and blood pressure, allowing a decrease in the relevant treatments.

Side effects were minimal and only two patients (one EAS and one ACC) experienced plasma transaminase elevations necessitating ketoconazole withdrawal.

Conclusion

Metyrapone–ketoconazole combination therapy is well tolerated and provides rapid control of endocrine cancer-related life-threatening hypercortisolism.

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Patricia Niccoli, Philippe Brunet, Christa Roubicek, François Roux, Eric Baudin, Pierre-Jean Lejeune, Yvon Berland and Bernard Conte-Devolx

Niccoli P, Brunet P, Roubicek C, Roux F, Baudin E, Lejeune P-J, Berland Y, Conte-Devolx B. Abnormal calcitonin basal levels and pentagastrin response in patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis. Eur J Endocrinol 1995;132:75–81. ISSN 0804–4643

Hypercalcitoninemia has been reported in renal failure. Using a specific monomeric calcitonin (CT) immunoassay, we measured CT levels in 154 hemodialyzed patients. The relationship between CT and serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), gastrin, alkaline phosphatases, phosphate and calcium was studied. The pentagastrin test was performed in 26 patients exhibiting basal hypercalcitoninemia. Basal CT levels over 5.7 pmol/l (20 ng/l) were found in 25.3% of the patients and values higher than 26 pmol/l (90 ng/l) in 7.8%. Although CT is cleared by hemodialysis, post-dialysis CT levels either were unchanged or increased as compared with pre-dialysis values. This suggests that hypercalcitoninemia is not related to a decreased renal clearance, and that hemodialysis induces a specific regulatory pathway. None of the parameters studied were found to explain high CT levels. Of the patients with hypercalcitoninemia, 11.5% exhibited abnormal CT response to pentagastrin but no relationship between CT and phosphate, calcium and PTH levels was evidenced. Our findings confirm high CT monomer levels in renal failure. As there was no correlation with parameters classically involved in CT regulation, its physiological significance remains unclear. Abnormal CT response to pentagastrin raises the problem of its specificity as a tumoral marker with regard to medullary thyroid carcinoma.

B Conte-Devolx, Service d'Endocrinologie et Maladies Métaboliques, Hôpital de la Conception, 147 Bd Baille, Marseille 13385 cedex 05, France

Free access

Martin Fassnacht, Olaf M Dekkers, Tobias Else, Eric Baudin, Alfredo Berruti, Ronald R de Krijger, Harm R Haak, Radu Mihai, Guillaume Assie and Massimo Terzolo

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and in most cases steroid hormone-producing tumor with variable prognosis. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with ACC based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions, which we judged as particularly important for the management of ACC patients and performed systematic literature searches: (A) What is needed to diagnose an ACC by histopathology? (B) Which are the best prognostic markers in ACC? (C) Is adjuvant therapy able to prevent recurrent disease or reduce mortality after radical resection? (D) What is the best treatment option for macroscopically incompletely resected, recurrent or metastatic disease? Other relevant questions were discussed within the group. Selected Recommendations: (i) We recommend that all patients with suspected and proven ACC are discussed in a multidisciplinary expert team meeting. (ii) We recommend that every patient with (suspected) ACC should undergo careful clinical assessment, detailed endocrine work-up to identify autonomous hormone excess and adrenal-focused imaging. (iii) We recommend that adrenal surgery for (suspected) ACC should be performed only by surgeons experienced in adrenal and oncological surgery aiming at a complete en bloc resection (including resection of oligo-metastatic disease). (iv) We suggest that all suspected ACC should be reviewed by an expert adrenal pathologist using the Weiss score and providing Ki67 index. (v) We suggest adjuvant mitotane treatment in patients after radical surgery that have a perceived high risk of recurrence (ENSAT stage III, or R1 resection, or Ki67 >10%). (vi) For advanced ACC not amenable to complete surgical resection, local therapeutic measures (e.g. radiation therapy, radiofrequency ablation, chemoembolization) are of particular value. However, we suggest against the routine use of adrenal surgery in case of widespread metastatic disease. In these patients, we recommend either mitotane monotherapy or mitotane, etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin depending on prognostic parameters. In selected patients with a good response, surgery may be subsequently considered. (vii) In patients with recurrent disease and a disease-free interval of at least 12 months, in whom a complete resection/ablation seems feasible, we recommend surgery or alternatively other local therapies. Furthermore, we offer detailed recommendations about the management of mitotane treatment and other supportive therapies. Finally, we suggest directions for future research.

Free access

Anne Laure Giraudet, Abir Al Ghulzan, Anne Aupérin, Sophie Leboulleux, Ahmed Chehboun, Frédéric Troalen, Clarisse Dromain, Jean Lumbroso, Eric Baudin and Martin Schlumberger

Objective

The progression of medullary thyroid cancer is difficult to assess with imaging modalities; we studied the interest of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) doubling times and of Ki-67 labeling and mitotic index (MI).

Patients and methods

Fifty-five consecutive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients with elevated calcitonin levels underwent repeated imaging studies in order to assess tumor burden and progression status. We looked for relationships between tumor burden and levels of calcitonin and CEA and between progression status according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) and calcitonin and CEA doubling times, and Ki-67 labeling and MI.

Results

The calcitonin and CEA levels were correlated with tumor burden. Ten patients with calcitonin levels below 816 pg/ml had no imaged tumor foci. Among the 45 patients with imaged tumor foci, 19 had stable disease and 26 had progressive disease, according to the RECIST. The calcitonin and CEA doubling times were strongly related to disease progression, with very few overlaps: 94% of patients with doubling times shorter than 25 months had progressive disease and 86% of patients with doubling times longer than 24 months had stable disease. Ki-67 labeling and MI were not significantly associated with disease progression.

Conclusion

For MTC patients, the doubling times of both calcitonin and CEA are efficient tools for assessing tumor progression.

Free access

Thierry de Baere, Frederic Deschamps, Lambros Tselikas, Michel Ducreux, David Planchard, Ernesto Pearson, Amandine Berdelou, Sophie Leboulleux, Dominique Elias and Eric Baudin

Neuroendocrine tumors from gastro-pancreatic origin (GEP-NET) can be responsible for liver metastases. Such metastases can be the dominant part of the disease as well due to the tumor burden itself or the symptoms related to such liver metastases. Intra-arterial therapies are commonly used in liver only or liver-dominant disease and encompass trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE), trans-arterial embolization (TAE), and radioembolization (RE). TACE performed with drug emulsified in Lipiodol has been used for the past 20 years with reported overall survival in the range of 3–4 years, with objective response up to 75%. Response to TACE is higher when treatment is used as a first-line therapy and degree of liver involvement is lower. Benefit of TACE over TAE is unproven in randomized study, but reported in retrospective studies namely in pancreatic NETs. RE provides early interesting results that need to be further evaluated in terms of benefit and toxicity. Radiofrequency ablation allows control of small size and numbered liver metastases, with low invasiveness. Ideal metastases to target are one metastasis <5 cm, or three metastases <3 cm, or a sum of diameter of all metastases below 8 cm. Ablation therapies can be applied in the lung or in the bones when needed, and more invasive surgery should be probably saved for large-size metastases. Even if the indication of image-guided therapy in the treatment of GEP-NET liver metastases needs to be refined, such therapies allow for manageable invasive set of treatments able to address oligometastatic patients in liver, lung, and bones. These treatments applied locally will save the benefit and the toxicity of systemic therapy for more advanced stage of the disease.

Free access

Sophie Mauclère-Denost, Sophie Leboulleux, Isabelle Borget, Angelo Paci, Jacques Young, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Desiree Deandreis, Laurence Drouard, Antoine Tabarin, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger and Eric Baudin

Background

The benefit-to-risk ratio of a high-dose strategy at the initiation of mitotane treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) remains unknown.

Methods

To evaluate the performance of a high-dose strategy, defined as the highest tolerated dose administered within 2 weeks and maintenance therapy over 4 weeks, we conducted a single-center, prospective study with two main objectives: to evaluate the percentage of patients who achieve a plasma mitotane level above 14 mg/l and to evaluate the tolerance of mitotane within the first 3 months of treatment. Plasma mitotane levels were measured monthly using HPLC.

Results

Twenty-two patients with ACC were prospectively enrolled. The high-dose mitotane strategy (4 g/day or more in all patients, with a median of 6 g/day within 2 weeks) enabled to reach the therapeutic threshold of >14 mg/l at 1, 2, or 3 months in 6/22 patients (27%), 7/22 patients (32%), and 7/22 patients (32%) respectively. In total, a therapeutic plasma mitotane level was reached in 14 out of 22 patients (63.6%) during the first 3 months in ten patients, and after 3 months in four patients. Grade 3–4 neurological or hematological toxicities were observed in three patients (13.6%).

Conclusion

Employing a high-dose strategy at the time of mitotane initiation enabled therapeutic plasma levels of mitotane to be reached within 1 month in 27% of the total group of patients. If this strategy is adopted, we suggest that mitotane dose is readjusted according to plasma mitotane levels at 1 or/and 2 months and patient tolerance.

Free access

Sylvie Salenave, Valérie Bernard, Christine Do Cao, Laurence Guignat, Anne Bachelot, Sophie Leboulleux, Céline Droumaguet, Hélène Bry-Gauillard, Peggy Pierre, Lise Crinière, Pietro Santulli, Philippe Touraine, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger, Dominique Maiter, Eric Baudin and Jacques Young

Context

Mitotane is an adrenolytic and anticortisolic drug used in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), Cushing's disease (CD), and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Its effects on the ovaries are unknown.

Objective

To evaluate the ovarian and gonadotrope effects of mitotane therapy in premenopausal women.

Patients

We studied 21 premenopausal women (ACC: n=13; CD: n=8; median age 33 years, range 18–45 years) receiving mitotane at a median initial dose of 3 g/day (range 1.5–6 g/day).

Methods

Gynecological history was collected and ovarian ultrasound was performed. Four women also underwent ovarian CT or magnetic resonance imaging. Serum gonadotropin, estradiol (E2), androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and circulating mitotane levels were determined at diagnosis and during mitotane therapy.

Results

In the women included, ovarian macrocysts (bilateral in 51%) were detected after a median 11 months (range: 3–36) of mitotane exposure. The median number of macrocysts per woman was two (range: 1–4) and the median diameter of the largest cysts was 50 mm (range: 26–90). Menstrual irregularities and/or pelvic pain were present in 15 out of 21 women at macrocyst diagnosis. In two women, the macrocysts were revealed by complications (ovarian torsion and hemorrhagic macrocyst rupture) that required surgery. Mitotane therapy was associated with a significant decrease in androstenedione and testosterone levels and a significant increase in LH levels. Serum FSH and E2 levels were also increased, and SHBG levels rose markedly.

Conclusions

Mitotane therapy causes significant morphological and ovarian/gonadotrope hormonal abnormalities in premenopausal women. Follicular thecal steroid synthesis appears to be specifically altered and the subsequent increase in gonadotropins might explain the development of macrocysts. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects, whose exact prevalence in this population still needs to be determined, are discussed.

Free access

Alfredo Berruti, Paola Sperone, Anna Ferrero, Antonina Germano, Arianna Ardito, Adriano Massimiliano Priola, Silvia De Francia, Marco Volante, Fulvia Daffara, Daniele Generali, Sophie Leboulleux, Paola Perotti, Eric Baudin, Mauro Papotti and Massimo Terzolo

Background

There is a strong rationale in the use of antiangiogenic therapy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Metronomic administration of chemotherapy and antiangiogenic drugs can be synergistic in targeting endothelial cells.

Objective

We assessed the activity of sorafenib plus metronomic paclitaxel as second/third-line therapy in advanced ACC patients. We also tested the activity of sorafenib and paclitaxel against NCI-H295R in vitro.

Design

Multicenter, prospective phase II trial.

Setting

Referral centers for ACC.

Methods

Twenty-five consecutive metastatic ACC patients who progressed after mitotane plus one or two chemotherapy lines were planned to be enrolled. The patients received a combination of i.v. paclitaxel (60 mg/m2 every week) and oral sorafenib (400 mg twice a day) till progression. The primary aim was to measure the progression-free survival rate after 4 months and the secondary aims were to assess the objective response rate and toxicity.

Results

Tumor progression was observed in nine evaluable patients at the first assessment. These results led to the premature interruption of the trial. The treatment was well tolerated. The most relevant toxicities were fatigue, being grade 2 or 3 in four patients, and hypophosphatemia, being grade 3 in three patients. In the in vitro study, sorafenib impaired the viability of H295R cells with dose–response and time–response relationships. The in vitro sorafenib activity was not increased in combination with paclitaxel.

Conclusions

Despite the in vitro activity, sorafenib plus weekly paclitaxel is an inactive salvage treatment in patients with advanced ACC and should not be recommended.

Restricted access

Alfredo Berruti, Rossella Libè, Marta Laganà, Hester Ettaieb, Mohamad Anas Sukkari, Jérôme Bertherat, Richard A Feelders, Salvatore Grisanti, Jérôme Cartry, Gherardo Mazziotti, Sandra Sigala, Eric Baudin, Harm Haak, Mouhammed Amir Habra and Massimo Terzolo

Introduction

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer that commonly spreads to the liver, lungs and lymph nodes. Bone metastases are infrequent.

Objective

The aim of this report was to describe the clinical characteristics, survival perspective, prognostic factors and frequency of adverse skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with ACC who developed bone metastasis.

Methods

This is a retrospective, observational, multicenter, multinational study of patients diagnosed with bone metastases from ACC who were treated and followed up in three European countries (France, Italy and The Netherlands) and one center in the United States.

Results

Data of 156 patients were captured. The median overall survival was 11 months. SREs occurred in 47% of patients: 17% bone fractures, 17% spinal cord compression, 1% hypercalcemia, 12% developed more than one SRE. In multivariate analysis, cortisol hypersecretion was the only prognostic factor significantly associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19–4.23, P = 0.013) and with the development of a SREs (of border line significance). The administration of antiresorptive therapies (bisphosphonates and denosumab) was associated with a lower risk of death, even if not significant, and their survival benefit appeared confined in patients attaining serum mitotane levels within the therapeutic range.

Conclusion

Bone metastases in ACC patients are associated with poor prognosis and high risk of SREs. Cortisol hypersecretion was the only prognostic factor suggesting a potential benefit from antisecretory medications. The therapeutic role of bisphosphonates and denosumab to improve patient outcome deserves to be tested in a prospective clinical trial.