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Juliane Léger, Anne Forhan, Sophie Dos Santos, Béatrice Larroque, Emmanuel Ecosse, Marie-Aline Charles and Barbara Heude

Objective

Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. No data are currently available for the offspring of patients treated early for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The aim of this study was to investigate motor and language milestones at one year of age in a population-based registry of children born to young women with CH.

Design and methods

We assessed 110 children born to mothers with CH, and 1367 children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study prospectively, at the age of one year, with identical questionnaires. Outcomes were assessed in terms of scores for childhood developmental milestones relating to mobility, motor coordination, communication, motricity and language skills.

Results

After adjustment for confounding factors, children born to mothers with CH were found to have a higher risk of poor motor coordination than those of the EDEN cohort (OR: 4.18, 95% CI: 2.52–6.93). No differences were identified for the other four domains investigated. Children born to mothers with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of low motor coordination score than their peers (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.21–3.66). Children born to mothers with TSH ≥ 10 IU/L during the first six months of pregnancy were more likely to have low motricity or communication skills scores than those born to mothers with lower TSH concentrations (56% vs 21% for each score, P < 0.04).

Conclusions

Maternal CH may have slight adverse effects on some developmental milestones in the child at one year of age, particularly for children born to mothers with uncontrolled hypothyroidism. However, it remains unclear whether these adverse effects modify subsequent neurodevelopment.

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Myriam Rosilio, Jean-Claude Carel, Emmanuel Ecosse and Jean-Louis Chaussainon

Group-author : on behalf of the 0908 Lilly Study Group

Objective: Human GH (hGH) treatment leads to catch-up growth in children with short stature born small for gestational age (SGA). However, long-term efficacy and safety results in this patient group remain scarce. The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of late childhood treatment with biosynthetic hGH (Humatrope) in a group of short children born SGA (height <−2 standard deviation scores (SDS)).

Design: Patients in this open-label, Phase III, multicenter study received a daily hGH dose of 0.067 mg/kg for 2 years, and then received no treatment for the following 2 years. After the fourth year on study, patients whose height had decreased more than 0.5 SDS but who still showed growth potential based on bone age were allowed to resume treatment until they reached adult height.

Methods: Height gain SDS was assessed for 11 girls and 24 boys (mean age±s.d. 9.6±0.9 years) at the end of the 2 years of hGH treatment, during the subsequent 2-year off-treatment period, and upon reaching adult height.

Results: At the end of the initial 2-year treatment period, 83% of patients had reached a height within the normal range, with a mean increase in height SDS vs baseline of 1.3±0.3 (P <0.001). Adult heights (n = 20) were within the normal range for 50% of patients, and mean height gain from baseline was statistically significant (0.7±0.8 SDS, P <0.001). Fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were not significantly modified during treatment.

Conclusions: High-dose hGH treatment for a minimum of 2 years in short children born SGA was well tolerated and resulted in a significant increase in adolescent and adult height.

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Selmen Wannes, Monique Elmaleh-Bergès, Dominique Simon, Delphine Zénaty, Laetitia Martinerie, Caroline Storey, Georges Gelwane, Anne Paulsen, Emmanuel Ecosse, Nicolas De Roux, Jean Claude Carel and Juliane Léger

Objective

Non-idiopathic CPP is caused by acquired or congenital hypothalamic lesions visible on MRI or is associated with various complex genetic and/or syndromic disorders. This study investigated the different types and prevalence of non-isolated CPP phenotypes.

Design and Methods

This observational cohort study included all patients identified as having non-idiopathic CPP in the database of a single academic pediatric care center over a period of 11.5 years. Patients were classified on the basis of MRI findings for the CNS as having either hypothalamic lesions or complex syndromic phenotypes without structural lesions of the hypothalamus.

Results

In total, 63 consecutive children (42 girls and 21 boys) with non-isolated CPP were identified. Diverse diseases were detected, and the hypothalamic lesions visible on MRI (n = 28, 45% of cases) included hamartomas (n = 17; either isolated or with an associated syndromic phenotype), optic gliomas (n = 8; with or without neurofibromatosis type 1), malformations (n = 3) with interhypothalamic adhesions (n = 2; isolated or associated with syndromic CNS midline abnormalities, such as optic nerve hypoplasia, ectopic posterior pituitary) or arachnoid cysts (n = 1). The patients with non-structural hypothalamic lesions (n = 35, 55% of cases) had narcolepsy (n = 9), RASopathies (n = 4), encephalopathy or autism spectrum disorders with or without chromosomal abnormalities (n = 15) and other complex syndromic disorders (n = 7).

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that a large proportion (55%) of patients with non-isolated probable non-idiopathic CPP may have complex disorders without structural hypothalamic lesions on MRI. Future studies should explore the pathophysiological relevance of the mechanisms underlying CPP in these disorders.

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Dominique Simon, Ibrahima Ba, Nancy Mekhail, Emmanuel Ecosse, Anne Paulsen, Delphine Zenaty, Muriel Houang, Monique Jesuran Perelroizen, Gian-Paolo de Filippo, Mariacarolina Salerno, Gilbert Simonin, Rachel Reynaud, Jean-Claude Carel, Juliane Léger and Nicolas de Roux

Context and objective

Idiopathic central precocious puberty (iCPP) is defined as early activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in the absence of identifiable central lesions. Mutations of the makorin RING finger 3 (MKRN3) gene are associated with iCPP. We aimed to assess the frequency of MKRN3 mutations in iCPP and to compare the phenotypes of patients with and without MKRN3 mutations.

Design

An observational study was carried out on patients recruited at pediatric hospitals in France and Italy. Forty-six index CPP cases were screened for mutations in the MKRN3 coding sequence: 28 index cases of familial cases and 18 cases did not report any familial history of CPP. The endocrine phenotype was compared between MKRN3 mutated and non-mutated patients.

Results

MKRN3 mutations were identified in one sporadic and 13 familial cases. We identified five new heterozygous missense mutations predicted to be deleterious for protein function and two frameshift mutations, one new and the other recurrent, predicted to result in truncated proteins. Age at puberty onset varied very little among patients with MKRN3 mutations and puberty occurred earlier in these patients than in those without MKRN3 mutations (6.0 years (5.4–6.0) vs 7.0 years (6.0–7.0), P=0.01).

Conclusions

MKRN3 mutations are common in familial iCPP. MKRN3 is one of the gatekeepers of the postnatal activation of the gonadotropic axis.