Loss-of-function germline MEN1 gene mutations account for 75–95% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). It has been postulated that mutations in non-coding regions of MEN1 might occur in some of the remaining patients; however, this hypothesis has not yet been fully investigated.
To sequence for the entire MEN1 including promoter, exons and introns in a large MEN1 cohort and determine the mutation profile.
Methods and patients
A target next-generation sequencing (tNGS) assay comprising 7.2 kb of the full MEN1 was developed to investigate germline mutations in 76 unrelated MEN1 probands (49 familial, 27 sporadic). tNGS results were validated by Sanger sequencing (SS), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was applied when no mutations were identifiable by both tNGS and SS.
Germline MEN1 variants were verified in coding region and splicing sites of 57/76 patients (74%) by both tNGS and SS (100% reproducibility). Thirty-eight different pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified, including 13 new and six recurrent variants. Three large deletions were detected by MLPA only. No mutation was detected in 16 patients. In untranslated, regulatory or in deep intronic MEN1 regions of the 76 MEN1 cases, no point or short indel pathogenic variants were found in untranslated, although 33 benign/likely benign and three new VUS variants were detected.
Our study documents that point or short indel mutations in non-coding regions of MEN1 are very rare events. Also, tNGS proved to be a highly effective technology for routine genetic MEN1 testing.