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Free access

Cristina L Ronchi, Elisa Verrua, Emanuele Ferrante, Gwendolyn Bender, Elisa Sala, Andrea G Lania, Martin Fassnacht, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Bruno Allolio, Anna Spada, and Maura Arosio


Radiation therapy (RT) is a useful adjuvant tool for acromegalic patients not cured by surgery and/or not responding to pharmacotherapy. However, its specific effects on cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity are still on debate.


Retrospective analysis of 42 acromegalic patients cured after conventional radiotherapy (CRT, n=31) or radiosurgery by gamma-knife (GKRS, n=11) followed for a median period of 16.5 years (range: 2–40). Totally, 56 patients cured by surgery alone, with similar GH/IGF1 levels and duration of disease remission, served as control group.


Changes in cardiovascular risk factors, such as body mass index, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipid profile (pre-defined primary end point) and occurrence of new major cardio- and cerebrovascular events (secondary end point) during follow-up.


The number of obese, hypertensive, and dyslipidemic subjects increased over time only in patients cured with RT. In contrast, the glucose response to the oral glucose tolerance test and the percentage of subjects with glucose alterations improved only in controls. As expected, the percentage of patients with pituitary failure was deeply higher among RT patients than among controls (86 vs 30%, P<0.0005). Despite these findings, a similar number of RT patients and controls developed major cardio- or cerebrovascular events (4/42 vs 3/56, P: NS). No differences were found between CRT and GKRS subgroups.


Previous RT seems to be associated with a worse metabolic profile in acromegalic patients studied after a long-term follow-up. Nevertheless, a direct link between RT and cardiovascular events remains to be proven.

Open access

Giulia Carosi, Alessandra Mangone, Elisa Sala, Giulia Del Sindaco, Roberta Mungari, Arianna Cremaschi, Emanuele Ferrante, Maura Arosio, and Giovanna Mantovani

Objective: high IGF-1 and unsuppressed GH levels after glucose load confirm the diagnosis of acromegaly. Management of patients with conflicting results could be challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and hormonal evolution over a long follow-up in patients with high IGF-1 but normal GH nadir (GHn<0.4 μg/L according to the latest guidelines).

Design: retrospective cohort study.

Methods: we enrolled 53 patients presenting high IGF-1 and GHn<0.4 μg/L, assessed because of clinical suspicion of acromegaly or in other endocrinological contexts (e.g., pituitary incidentaloma). Clinical and hormonal data collected at the first and last visit were analyzed.

Results: at the first evaluation, the mean age was 54.1±15.4 years, 34/53 were females, median IGF-1 and GHn were +3.1 SDS and 0.06 μg/L, respectively. In the whole group, over a median time of 6 years, IGF-1 and GHn levels did not significantly change (IGF-1 mean of differences -0.58, p=0.15; GHn +0.03, p=0.29). In patients with clinical features of acromegaly, the prevalence of acromegalic comorbidities was higher than in the others (median of 3 vs 1 comorbidities per patient, p=0.005), especially malignancies (36% vs 6%, p=0.03), and the clinical worsening overtime was more pronounced (4 vs 1 comorbidities at the last visit).

Conclusions: in patients presenting high IGF-1 but GHn<0.4 μg/L, a hormonal progression is improbable, likely excluding classical acromegaly on its early stage. However, despite persistently low GH nadir values, patients with acromegalic features present more acromegalic comorbidities whose rate increases over time. Close clinical surveillance in this group is advised.