The calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) has an important role in calcium homoeostasis by controlling PTH secretion and renal calcium handling. Inactivating mutations in the CASR gene (HGNC ID: 1514) cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH). We present a case of FHH patient to describe a novel mutation in the CASR.
Subjects and methods
A 34-year-old patient was referred because of recurrent hypercalcaemia after resection of two hyperplastic parathyroids. Extensive evaluation found elevated PTH and low calcium/creatinine clearance ratio. One of her three children had high serum calcium concentrations. Genetic studies were performed by PCR amplification of CASR coding exons and direct sequencing of PCR products. Transient transfection of the wild-type (WT) CASR and the mutant CASR into COS-7 was performed to assess functional impact of the mutation and the capacity of either protein to mediate increases in cellular levels of inositol phosphates (IPs).
CASR sequencing found a previously undescribed heterozygous base substitution, determining a change of threonine to isoleucine at codon 550 (p.T550I) in the sixth exon. In contrast to those transfected with WT CASR, which showed a five- to eightfold increase in total IPs at high levels of calcium, COS-7 cells transfected with the (p.T550I) mutant showed no increase confirming to the inactivating nature of the mutation. COS-7 cells co-transfected with the WT and the (p.T550I) mutant showed an intermediate response suggesting a possible dominant negative effect.
This case report presents a not-yet-described mutation in the cysteine-rich region of the CASR extracellular domain, a mutation with a possible dominant negative effect.