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  • Author: Edelmiro Menéndez x
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Sergio Valdés, Viyey Doulatram-Gamgaram, Ana Lago, Francisca García Torres, Rocío Badía-Guillén, Gabriel Olveira, Albert Goday, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Luis Castaño, Conxa Castell, Elías Delgado, Edelmiro Menendez, Josep Franch-Nadal, Sonia Gaztambide, Joan Girbés, Ramón Gomis, Emilio Ortega, José L Galán-García, Gabriel Aguilera-Venegas, Federico Soriguer, and Gemma Rojo-Martínez

Objective

The activity of brown adipose tissue is sensitive to changes in ambient temperature. A lower exposure to cold could result in an increased risk of developing diabetes at population level, although this factor has not yet been sufficiently studied.

Design

We studied 5072 subjects, participants in a national, cross-sectional population-based study representative of the Spanish adult population (Di@bet.es study). All subjects underwent a clinical, demographic and lifestyle survey, a physical examination and blood sampling (75 g oral glucose tolerance test). Insulin resistance was estimated with the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The mean annual temperature (°C) in each individual municipality was collected from the Spanish National Meteorology Agency.

Results

Linear regression analysis showed a significant positive association between mean annual temperature and fasting plasma glucose (β: 0.087, P < 0.001), 2 h plasma glucose (β: 0.049, P = 0.008) and HOMA-IR (β: 0.046, P = 0.008) in multivariate adjusted models. Logistic regression analyses controlled by multiple socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, adiposity (BMI) and geographical elevation showed increasing odds ratios for prediabetes (WHO 1999), ORs 1, 1.26 (0.95–1.66), 1.08 (0.81–1.44) and 1.37 (1.01–1.85) P for trend = 0.086, diabetes (WHO 1999) ORs 1, 1.05 (0.79–1.39), 1.20 (0.91–1.59) and 1.39 (1.02–1.90) P = 0.037, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥75th percentile of the non-diabetic population): ORs 1, 1.03 (0.82–1.30), 1.22 (0.96–1.55), 1.26 (0.98–1.63) (P for trend = 0.046) as the mean annual temperature (into quartiles) rose.

Conclusions

Our study reports an association between ambient temperature and the prevalence of dysglycemia and insulin resistance in Spanish adults, consistent with the hypothesis that a lower exposure to cold could be associated with a higher risk of metabolic derangements.

Restricted access

Silvia Patricia Alonso, Sergio Valdés, Cristina Maldonado-Araque, Ana Lago, Pilar Ocon, Alfonso Calle, Luis Castaño, Elías Delgado, Edelmiro Menéndez, Josep Franch-Nadal, Sonia Gaztambide, Juan Girbés, Felipe Chaves, Sara Garcia-Serrano, Eva Garcia-Escobar, José Carlos Fernandez-García, Gabriel Olveira, Natalia Colomo, and Gemma Rojo-Martínez

Objective

It has been proposed that a mild form of acquired resistance to thyroid hormone may occur in the general population. Its clinical significance remains largely unknown. The objective of the study was to explore whether a newly described thyroid hormone resistance index is associated with the risk of mortality in a sample of community-dwelling euthyroid subjects representative of the adult population of Spain.

Design

Longitudinal observational study including 3750 individuals, free of thyroid disease, TPO antibodies-negative (<50 IU/mL) and with TSH levels within the euthyroid range (≥0.5 and ≤5.0 mUI/mL) participating in the nationwide study Di@bet.es (2008–2010).

Methods

We used the Thyroid Feedback Quantile-based Index (TFQI) as a marker of resistance to thyroid hormone. The study population was grouped into categories according to their TFQI values at baseline. Fatal events were ascertained from the national death registry (end of follow-up December 2016).

Results

A total of 231 deaths were recorded during an average follow-up of 7.3 years. Compared with the category with the highest sensitivity to free thyroxine (TFQI ≤ p5) (reference), the relative risk of mortality in the categories with TFQI > p5 and ≤p25; >p25 and ≤p50; >p50 and ≤p75; >p75 and ≤p95 and >p95 were 1.01, (0.47–2.19), 1.42 (0.68–2.97), 1.54 (0.74–3.22), 1.47 (0.70–3.11) and 2.61 (1.16–5.89), respectively (P for trend 0.003). The association remained significant after multivariate adjustment of the data (P for trend 0.017).

Conclusions

A thyroid hormone resistance index focused on deviations of the average pituitary response to thyroid hormones may be associated with all-cause mortality independently of other conventional risk factors and comorbidities.

Restricted access

Sandra Rodríguez-Rodero, Paula Morales-Sánchez, Juan Ramón Tejedor, Andrés Coca-Pelaz, Cristina Mangas, Alfonso Peñarroya, Iván Fernández-Vega, Luís Fernández-Fernández, Carmen M Álvarez-López, Agustín F Fernández, Marina Arranz Álvarez, Aurora Astudillo, Pedro Pujante Alarcón, Cecilia Ragnarssön, Alberto Colina Alonso, Héctor Enrique Torres Rivas, Juan Pablo Rodrigo Tapia, Sandra Nieto Torrero, Yaiza Pedroche-Just, Rita María Regojo Zapata, Ana M Rodríguez-García, Anabel Abó, Milagros Balbín, Edelmiro Menéndez, Elías Delgado, and Mario F Fraga

Objective

The minimally invasive fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of thyroid nodule malignancy. However, the correct discrimination of follicular neoplasia often requires more invasive diagnostic techniques. The lack of suitable immunohistochemical markers to distinguish between follicular thyroid carcinoma and other types of follicular-derived lesions complicates diagnosis, and despite most of these tumours being surgically resected, only a small number will test positive for malignancy. As such, the development of new orthogonal diagnostic approaches may improve the accuracy of diagnosing thyroid nodules.

Design

This study includes a retrospective, multi-centre training cohort including 54 fresh-frozen follicular-patterned thyroid samples and two independent, multi-centre validation cohorts of 103 snap-frozen biopsies and 33 FNAC samples, respectively.

Methods

We performed a genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiling of 54 fresh-frozen follicular-patterned thyroid samples using exome sequencing and the Illumina Human DNA Methylation EPIC platform. An extensive validation was performed using the bisulfite pyrosequencing technique.

Results

Using a random forest approach, we developed a three-CpG marker-based diagnostic model that was subsequently validated using bisulfite pyrosequencing experiments. According to the validation cohort, this cost-effective method discriminates between benign and malignant nodules with a sensitivity and specificity of 97 and 88%, respectively (positive predictive value (PPV): 0.85, negative predictive value (NPV): 0.98).

Conclusions

Our classification system based on a minimal set of epigenetic biomarkers can complement the potential of the diagnostic techniques currently available and would prioritize a considerable number of surgical interventions that are often performed due to uncertain cytology.

Significance statement

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of people diagnosed with thyroid nodules. The current challenge is their etiological diagnosis to discount malignancy without resorting to thyroidectomy. The method proposed here, based on DNA pyrosequencing assays, has high sensitivity (0.97) and specificity (0.88) for the identification of malignant thyroid nodules. This simple and cost-effective approach can complement expert pathologist evaluation to prioritize the classification of difficult-to-diagnose follicular-patterned thyroid lesions and track tumor evolution, including real-time monitoring of treatment efficacy, thereby stimulating adherence to health promotion programs.