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A Toini, A Dolci, E Ferrante, E Verrua, E Malchiodi, E Sala, A G Lania, I Chiodini, P Beck-Peccoz, M Arosio, A Spada and G Mantovani

Context

Pituitary incidentalomas (PIs) are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The management of these asymptomatic pituitary lesions is still controversial. Systematic screening for subclinical or mild ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism (AH) is not presently recommended, due to the limited data available thus far on the epidemiological and clinical relevance of this condition in patients with PIs. As subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) was considered to be associated with chronic complications of overt cortisol excess, such as hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis, this disorder should be diagnosed at the early stage.

Objective

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypercortisolism in a population of subjects with PIs.

Design, subjects, and methods

A total of 68 consecutive patients (48 females and 20 males, aged 18–82 years) without clinically overt hypercortisolism, who were referred for evaluation of PIs between January 2010 and March 2013, were prospectively investigated for AH. Pituitary hypercortisolism was diagnosed in the presence of cortisol >50 nmol/l after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test, non-suppressed ACTH, and the additional finding of one of the following: urinary free cortisol (UFC) >193 nmol/24 h, and midnight serum and salivary cortisol levels >207 and 2.8 nmol/l respectively.

Results

Among patients with PIs, we found a 7.3% rate of pituitary hypercortisolism diagnosed with biochemical criteria and a 4.4% rate of histologically confirmed AH.

Conclusions

Subclinical or mild hypercortisolism may be more common than generally perceived in patients with PIs.

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C Giavoli, E Profka, E Sala, M Filopanti, A M Barbieri, S Bergamaschi, E Ferrante, M Arosio, B Ambrosi, A G Lania, A Spada and P Beck-Peccoz

Objective

A polymorphism in the promoter region of the IGF1 gene has been linked to serum IGF1 levels, risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of this polymorphism on the short-term (1 year, n=98) and long-term (5 years, n=50) metabolic response to recombinant human GH (rhGH) in GH-deficient (GHD) adults.

Design and methods

Prospective study on GHD adults. Different genotypes were studied by microsatellite method. According to the most frequent 192 bp allele (19 cytosine–adenosine-repeats), subjects were divided into homozygous (19/19), heterozygous (19/X), and noncarriers (X/X).

Results

Basal characteristics of patients as well as their response to rhGH in terms of decrease in body fat percentage and increase in IGF1 levels were not different in the three genotype-groups. Conversely, after 1-year rhGH, a significant worsening of insulin sensitivity (i.e. increase in fasting glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and a significant improvement in lipid profile (i.e. reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol) were recorded only in homozygous subjects. In the long-term, insulin sensitivity was restored in all the patients, while a significant improvement in lipid profile was observed in homozygous and heterozygous subjects, but not in noncarrier subjects. No difference in rhGH dose among groups was recorded throughout the study.

Conclusions

In GHD adults, the presence of the WT allele in the IGF1 gene promoter may enhance sensitivity to either negative or positive metabolic changes induced by rhGH.

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C L Ronchi, C Giavoli, E Ferrante, E Verrua, S Bergamaschi, D I Ferrari, S Corbetta, L Montefusco, M Arosio, B Ambrosi, A Spada and P Beck-Peccoz

Objective

Radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenomas, including GH-secreting ones, frequently leads to GH deficiency (GHD). Data on the effects of surgery alone (S) on dynamic GH secretion are limited. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of GHD in acromegalic patients treated with different therapeutic options.

Design and methods

Fifty-six patients in remission from acromegaly, (33 F & 23 M, age: 54±13 years, body mass index (BMI): 28.4±4.1 kg/m2, 21 with adequately substituted pituitary deficiencies) treated by S alone (n=33, group 1) or followed by RT (n=23, group 2), were investigated for GHD by GHRH plus arginine testing, using BMI-adjusted cut-offs. Several metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance and lipid profile) were evaluated in all the patients and 28 control subjects with known diagnosis of GHD.

Results

Serum GH peak after challenge was 8.0±9.7 μg/l, without any correlation with post-glucose GH nadir and IGF-1 levels. The GH response indicated severe GHD in 34 patients (61%) and partial GHD in 15 patients (27%). IGF-1 were below the normal range in 14 patients (25%). The frequency of GHD was similar in the two treatment groups (54% in group 1 and 70% in group 2). No significant differences in metabolic parameters were observed between acromegalic patients and controls with GHD.

Conclusions

Severe GHD may occur in about 60% of patients treated for acromegaly, even when cured after S alone. Thus, a stimulation test (i.e. GHRH plus arginine) is recommended in all cured acromegalic patients, independently from previous treatment.

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E Ferretti, ML Jaffrain Rea, C Asteria, D Di Stefano, V Esposito, L Ferrante, P Daniele, C Tiberti, M Gallucci, C Bosman, E Alesse, A Gulino, P Beck-Peccoz and G Tamburrano

OBJECTIVE: Pituitary adenomas are usually sporadic, although rare familial cases have been described. Here we report two first degree female cousins with giant pituitary adenoma and overweight. Both presented with secondary amenorrhoea, occasional headache and weight gain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In both patients clinical, morphological and genetic studies were performed. Both patients underwent surgery and post-operative medical therapy with somatostatin analogues and dopamine agonist, followed by a conventional radiotherapy course. RESULTS: Clinical examination at presentation revealed an acromegaloid habitus only in the second patient. Basal and dynamic hormonal evaluation showed high serum GH and serum IGF-I values, higher in the second than in the first patient, and a mild hyperprolactinaemia only in the first patient. On optical and electron microscopy, both tumours were oncocytic adenomas, immunopositive for GH in the first patient and GH/prolactin in the second. The genetic analysis for germ-line mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene was negative. Two years after radiotherapy a remarkable shrinkage of both tumours was observed, whereas the overweight worsened in both patients, accompanied by high plasma leptin values. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of familial pituitary adenomas including one case of a clinically silent GH-secreting adenoma. In addition, it provides further evidence that familial pituitary tumours can occur as a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 unrelated disease.