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Luis F de Castro, Diana Ovejero and Alison M Boyce

Fibrous dysplasia/McCune–Albright Syndrome (FD/MAS), arising from gain-of-function mutations in Gαs, and cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome (CSHS), arising from gain-of-function mutations in the Ras/MAPK pathway, are strikingly complex, mosaic diseases with overlapping phenotypes. Both disorders are defined by mosaic skin and bone involvement, and both are complicated by increased FGF23 production. These similarities have frequently led to mis-diagnoses, primarily in patients with CSHS who are often assumed to have FD/MAS. The intriguing similarities in skeletal involvement in these genetically distinct disorders have led to novel insights into FGF23 physiology, making an understanding of FD/MAS and CSHS relevant to both clinicians and researchers interested in bone and endocrine disorders. This review will give an overview of FD/MAS and CSHS, focusing on the roles of mosaicism and FGF23 in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of these disorders.