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Livia Lamartina, Désirée Deandreis, Cosimo Durante, and Sebastiano Filetti

The clinical and epidemiological profiles of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) have changed in the last three decades. Today’s DTCs are more likely to be small, localized, asymptomatic papillary forms. Current practice is, though, moving toward more conservative approaches (e.g. lobectomy instead of total thyroidectomy, selective use of radioiodine). This evolution has been paralleled and partly driven by rapid technological advances in the field of diagnostic imaging. The challenge of contemporary DTCs follow-up is to tailor a risk-of-recurrence-based management, taking into account the dynamic nature of these risks, which evolve over time, spontaneously and in response to treatments. This review provides a closer look at the evolving evidence-based views on the use and utility of imaging technology in the post-treatment staging and the short- and long-term surveillance of patients with DTCs. The studies considered range from cervical US with Doppler flow analysis to an expanding palette of increasingly sophisticated second-line studies (cross-sectional, functional, combined-modality approaches), which can be used to detect disease that has spread beyond the neck and, in some cases, shed light on its probable outcome.

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Fabio Bioletto, Marco Barale, Mirko Parasiliti-Caprino, Nunzia Prencipe, Alessandro Maria Berton, Massimo Procopio, Desirée Deandreis, and Ezio Ghigo

Background. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an autonomous hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone by one or more parathyroid glands. Preoperative localization of the affected gland(s) is of key importance in order to allow minimally invasive surgery. At the moment, 11C-Methionine and 18F-Fluorocholine PET studies appear to be among the most promising second-line localization techniques; their comparative diagnostic performance, however, is still unknown.

Methods. PubMed/Medline and Embase databases were searched up to October 2020 for studies estimating the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-Methionine PET or 18F-Fluorocholine PET for parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Pooled sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each tracer on a “per-lesion” basis and then compared using a random-effect model subgroup analysis.

Results. Twenty-two studies were finally considered in the meta-analysis. Among these, 8 evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-Methionine and 14 that of 18F-Fluorocholine. No study directly comparing the two tracers was found. The pooled sensitivity of 18F-Fluorocholine was higher than that of 11C-Methionine (92% vs 80%, p < 0.01), while the positive predictive value was similar (95% vs 94%, p = 0.99). These findings were confirmed in multivariable meta-regression models, demonstrating their apparent independence from other possible predictors or confounders at a study level.

Conclusion. This was the first meta-analysis that specifically compared the diagnostic accuracy of 11C-Methionine and 18F-Fluorocholine PET for parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Our results suggested a superior performance of 18F-Fluorocholine in terms of sensitivity, while the two tracers had comparable accuracy in terms of positive predictive value.

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Sophie Mauclère-Denost, Sophie Leboulleux, Isabelle Borget, Angelo Paci, Jacques Young, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Desiree Deandreis, Laurence Drouard, Antoine Tabarin, Philippe Chanson, Martin Schlumberger, and Eric Baudin

Background

The benefit-to-risk ratio of a high-dose strategy at the initiation of mitotane treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) remains unknown.

Methods

To evaluate the performance of a high-dose strategy, defined as the highest tolerated dose administered within 2 weeks and maintenance therapy over 4 weeks, we conducted a single-center, prospective study with two main objectives: to evaluate the percentage of patients who achieve a plasma mitotane level above 14 mg/l and to evaluate the tolerance of mitotane within the first 3 months of treatment. Plasma mitotane levels were measured monthly using HPLC.

Results

Twenty-two patients with ACC were prospectively enrolled. The high-dose mitotane strategy (4 g/day or more in all patients, with a median of 6 g/day within 2 weeks) enabled to reach the therapeutic threshold of >14 mg/l at 1, 2, or 3 months in 6/22 patients (27%), 7/22 patients (32%), and 7/22 patients (32%) respectively. In total, a therapeutic plasma mitotane level was reached in 14 out of 22 patients (63.6%) during the first 3 months in ten patients, and after 3 months in four patients. Grade 3–4 neurological or hematological toxicities were observed in three patients (13.6%).

Conclusion

Employing a high-dose strategy at the time of mitotane initiation enabled therapeutic plasma levels of mitotane to be reached within 1 month in 27% of the total group of patients. If this strategy is adopted, we suggest that mitotane dose is readjusted according to plasma mitotane levels at 1 or/and 2 months and patient tolerance.