Objective Turner Syndrome is associated with several phenotypic conditions associated with a higher risk of subsequent comorbidity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of congenital malformations and the occurrence of age-related comorbid conditions, and to determine whether the frequencies of congenital and acquired conditions depend on X-chromosome gene dosage, as a function of karyotype subgroup.
Design and Methods This national retrospective observational cohort study includes 1501 patients. We evaluated the prevalence of congenital malformations and the cumulative incidence of subsequent specific comorbidities at five-year intervals, from the ages of 10 to 30 years, with stratification by karyotype subgroup: 45,X (n = 549), 45,X/46,isoXq (n = 280), XrX (n = 106), 45,X/46,XX (n =221), presence of Y (n = 87).
Results Median age was 9.4 (3.7-13.7) years at first evaluation, and 16.8 (11.2-21.4) years at last evaluation. Congenital heart (18.9%) malformations were more frequent in 45,X patients, and congenital renal (17.2%) malformations were more frequent in 45,X, 45,X/46,isoXq and XrX patients than in those with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism or a Y chromosome (p < 0.0001). The cumulative incidence of subsequent acquired conditions, such as thyroid disease, hearing loss, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia and, to a lesser extent, celiac disease, glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes, hypertension and liver dysfunction increased with age, but less markedly for patients with mosaicism than for those with other karyotypes. Patients with a ring chromosome were more prone to metabolic disorders.
Conclusion These data suggest that X gene chromosome dosage, particularly for Xp genes, contributes to the risk of developing comorbidities.