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Andrea Salzano, Michele Arcopinto, Alberto M Marra, Emanuele Bobbio, Daniela Esposito, Giacomo Accardo, Francesco Giallauria, Eduardo Bossone, Carlo Vigorito, Andrea Lenzi, Daniela Pasquali, Andrea M Isidori, and Antonio Cittadini

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500–700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors’ own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use.

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Daniela Esposito, Oskar Ragnarsson, Daniel Granfeldt, Tom Marlow, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Daniel S Olsson

Context

New therapeutic strategies have developed for the management of acromegaly over recent decades. Whether this has improved mortality has not been fully elucidated.

Objective

The primary aim was to investigate mortality in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with acromegaly. Secondary analyses included time trends in mortality and treatment patterns.

Design

A total of 1089 patients with acromegaly were identified in Swedish National Health Registries between 1987 and 2013. To analyse time trends, the cohort was divided into three periods (1987–1995, 1996–2004 and 2005–2013) based on the year of diagnosis.

Main outcome measures

Using the Swedish population as reference, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

Overall SMR was 2.79 (95% CI: 2.43–3.15) with 232 observed and 83 expected deaths. Mortality was mainly related to circulatory diseases (SMR: 2.95, 95% CI: 2.35–3.55), including ischemic heart disease (2.00, 1.35–2.66) and cerebrovascular disease (3.99, 2.42–5.55) and malignancy (1.76, 1.27–2.26). Mortality decreased over time, with an SMR of 3.45 (2.87–4.02) and 1.86 (1.04–2.67) during the first and last time period, respectively (P = .015). During the same time periods, the frequency of pituitary surgery increased from 58% to 72% (P < 0.001) and the prevalence of hypopituitarism decreased from 41% to 23% (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Excess mortality was found in this nationwide cohort of patients with acromegaly, mainly related to circulatory and malignant diseases. Although still high, mortality significantly declined over time. This could be explained by the more frequent use of pituitary surgery, decreased prevalence of hypopituitarism and the availability of new medical treatment options.

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Daniela Esposito, Oskar Ragnarsson, Daniel Granfeldt, Tom Marlow, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Daniel S Olsson

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Daniela Esposito, Oskar Ragnarsson, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Daniel S Olsson

Context

Clinical features of acromegaly develop insidiously. Its diagnosis may therefore be delayed.

Objective

Our aim was to study diagnostic delay and its impact on morbidity and mortality in a nationwide cohort of patients with acromegaly.

Design

Adult patients diagnosed with acromegaly between 2001 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. Diagnostic codes for predefined comorbidities associated with acromegaly were recorded between 1987 and 2013. Diagnostic delay was calculated as the time between the first registered comorbidity and the diagnosis of acromegaly.

Results

A total of 603 patients (280 men, 323 women) with acromegaly were included. Mean (s.d.) diagnostic delay was 5.5 (6.2) years (median (minimum, maximum) 3.3 (0.0–25.9)) Diagnostic delay was 1–<5 years in 23% patients; 5–<10 years in 17%; and ≥10 years in 24%. No delay was recorded in 36% of patients. Overall, mean (s.d.) number of comorbidities was 4.1 (2.5) and was higher in patients with longer diagnostic delay (P < 0.0001). Overall, observed number of deaths was 61 (expected 42.2), resulting in a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11–1.86). Increased mortality was only found in patients with the longest diagnostic delay (1.76, 95% CI: 1.12–2.65). In the other groups, no statistically significant increase in mortality was recorded, with the numerically lowest SMR observed in patients without diagnostic delay (1.18; 95% CI: 0.68–1.92).

Conclusions

The diagnosis of acromegaly is delayed in most patients. Prolonged diagnostic delay is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

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Konstantina Vouzouneraki, Daniela Esposito, Sebastian Mukka, Daniel Granfeldt, Oskar Ragnarsson, Per Dahlqvist, and Daniel S Olsson

Objective

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in patients with acromegaly, with a reported prevalence of 19–64%. We studied CTS in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly and the temporal relationship between the two diagnoses.

Design

Retrospective, nationwide, cohort study including patients diagnosed with acromegaly in Sweden, 2005–2017, identified in the Swedish Healthcare Registries.

Methods

CTS (diagnosis and surgery in specialised healthcare) was analysed from 8.5 years before the diagnosis of acromegaly until death or end of the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs were calculated for CTS with the Swedish population as reference.

Results

The analysis included 556 patients with acromegaly (50% women) diagnosed at mean (s.d.) age 50.1 (15.0) years. During the study period, 48 patients were diagnosed with CTS and 41 patients underwent at least one CTS surgery. In the latter group, 35 (85%) were operated for CTS before the acromegaly diagnosis; mean interval (range) 2.2 (0.3–8.5) years and the SIR for having CTS surgery before the diagnosis of acromegaly was 6.6 (4.8–8.9). Women with acromegaly had a higher risk for CTS than men (hazard ratio: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–4.7).

Conclusions

Patients with acromegaly had a 6-fold higher incidence for CTS surgery before the diagnosis of acromegaly compared with the general population. The majority of patients with both diagnoses were diagnosed with CTS prior to acromegaly. Increased awareness of signs of acromegaly in patients with CTS might help to shorten the diagnostic delay in acromegaly, especially in women.

Free access

Domenico Rendina, Fernando Gianfrancesco, Gianpaolo De Filippo, Daniela Merlotti, Teresa Esposito, Alessandra Mingione, Ranuccio Nuti, Pasquale Strazzullo, Giuseppe Mossetti, and Luigi Gennari

Objective

FSH, via its receptor (FSHR), influences bone remodeling and osteoclast proliferation and activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FSHR gene on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen C-telopeptides) in postmenopausal women.

Methods

Two hundred and eighty-nine unrelated postmenopausal women were genotyped for the SNPs rs1394205 and rs6166. BMD was estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methodologies.

Results

AA rs6166 women showed a lower BMD (femoral neck and total body), lower stiffness index (calcaneal QUS), and higher serum levels of bone turnover markers compared to GG rs6166 women. The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in AA rs6166 women compared with GG rs6166 women. These results were not influenced by circulating levels of FSH and estrogens.

Conclusion

The SNP rs6166 of the FSHR gene significantly influences BMD in postmenopausal women. In particular, AA rs6166 women are at increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis compared with GG rs6166 women, independently of circulating levels of FSH and estrogens. Previous studies have demonstrated that this SNP influences cell and tissue response to hyperstimulation of FSHR in vivo and in vitro. Our study results appear in agreement with these experimental data and with known biological actions of FSH/FSHR system in bone homeostasis.