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Eva Lesén, Daniel Granfeldt, Aude Houchard, Jérôme Dinet, Anthony Berthon, Daniel S Olsson, Ingela Björholt, and Gudmundur Johannsson

Objective

Acromegaly is a complex endocrine disease with multiple comorbidities. Treatment to obtain biochemical remission includes surgery, medical therapy and radiation. We aimed to describe comorbidities, treatment patterns and cost-of-illness in patients with acromegaly in Sweden.

Design

A nationwide population-based study.

Methods

Patients with acromegaly were identified and followed in national registers in Sweden. Longitudinal treatment patterns were assessed in patients diagnosed between July 2005 and December 2013. The cost-of-illness during 2013 was estimated from a societal perspective among patients diagnosed between 1987 and 2013.

Results

Among 358 patients with acromegaly (48% men, mean age at diagnosis 50.0 (s.d. 15.3) years) at least one comorbidity was reported in 81% (n = 290). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (40%, n = 142), neoplasms outside the pituitary (30%, n = 109), hypopituitarism (22%, n = 80) and diabetes mellitus (17%, n = 61). Acromegaly treatment was initiated on average 3.7 (s.d. 6.9) months after diagnosis. Among the 301 treated patients, the most common first-line treatments were surgery (60%, n = 180), somatostatin analogues (21%, n = 64) and dopamine agonists (14%, n = 41). After primary surgery, 24% (n = 44) received somatostatin analogues. The annual per-patient cost was €12 000; this was €8700 and €16 000 if diagnosed before or after July 2005, respectively. The cost-of-illness for acromegaly and its comorbidities was 77% from direct costs and 23% from production loss.

Conclusions

The prevalence of comorbidity is high in patients with acromegaly. The most common first-line treatment in acromegalic patients was surgery followed by somatostatin analogues. The annual per-patient cost of acromegaly and its comorbidities was €12 000.

Free access

Daniela Esposito, Oskar Ragnarsson, Daniel Granfeldt, Tom Marlow, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Daniel S Olsson

Context

New therapeutic strategies have developed for the management of acromegaly over recent decades. Whether this has improved mortality has not been fully elucidated.

Objective

The primary aim was to investigate mortality in a nationwide unselected cohort of patients with acromegaly. Secondary analyses included time trends in mortality and treatment patterns.

Design

A total of 1089 patients with acromegaly were identified in Swedish National Health Registries between 1987 and 2013. To analyse time trends, the cohort was divided into three periods (1987–1995, 1996–2004 and 2005–2013) based on the year of diagnosis.

Main outcome measures

Using the Swedish population as reference, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results

Overall SMR was 2.79 (95% CI: 2.43–3.15) with 232 observed and 83 expected deaths. Mortality was mainly related to circulatory diseases (SMR: 2.95, 95% CI: 2.35–3.55), including ischemic heart disease (2.00, 1.35–2.66) and cerebrovascular disease (3.99, 2.42–5.55) and malignancy (1.76, 1.27–2.26). Mortality decreased over time, with an SMR of 3.45 (2.87–4.02) and 1.86 (1.04–2.67) during the first and last time period, respectively (P = .015). During the same time periods, the frequency of pituitary surgery increased from 58% to 72% (P < 0.001) and the prevalence of hypopituitarism decreased from 41% to 23% (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Excess mortality was found in this nationwide cohort of patients with acromegaly, mainly related to circulatory and malignant diseases. Although still high, mortality significantly declined over time. This could be explained by the more frequent use of pituitary surgery, decreased prevalence of hypopituitarism and the availability of new medical treatment options.

Free access

Daniela Esposito, Oskar Ragnarsson, Daniel Granfeldt, Tom Marlow, Gudmundur Johannsson, and Daniel S Olsson

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Konstantina Vouzouneraki, Daniela Esposito, Sebastian Mukka, Daniel Granfeldt, Oskar Ragnarsson, Per Dahlqvist, and Daniel S Olsson

Objective

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in patients with acromegaly, with a reported prevalence of 19–64%. We studied CTS in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly and the temporal relationship between the two diagnoses.

Design

Retrospective, nationwide, cohort study including patients diagnosed with acromegaly in Sweden, 2005–2017, identified in the Swedish Healthcare Registries.

Methods

CTS (diagnosis and surgery in specialised healthcare) was analysed from 8.5 years before the diagnosis of acromegaly until death or end of the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs were calculated for CTS with the Swedish population as reference.

Results

The analysis included 556 patients with acromegaly (50% women) diagnosed at mean (s.d.) age 50.1 (15.0) years. During the study period, 48 patients were diagnosed with CTS and 41 patients underwent at least one CTS surgery. In the latter group, 35 (85%) were operated for CTS before the acromegaly diagnosis; mean interval (range) 2.2 (0.3–8.5) years and the SIR for having CTS surgery before the diagnosis of acromegaly was 6.6 (4.8–8.9). Women with acromegaly had a higher risk for CTS than men (hazard ratio: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–4.7).

Conclusions

Patients with acromegaly had a 6-fold higher incidence for CTS surgery before the diagnosis of acromegaly compared with the general population. The majority of patients with both diagnoses were diagnosed with CTS prior to acromegaly. Increased awareness of signs of acromegaly in patients with CTS might help to shorten the diagnostic delay in acromegaly, especially in women.