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T Mary Fujiwara, Kenneth Morgan and Daniel G Bichet

In congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the renal collecting ducts are resistant to the antidiuretic action of arginine-vasopressin, or to its antidiuretic analog dDAVP (1, 2). This is a rare, but now well described entity secondary to either mutations in the AVPR2 gene that codes for the vasopressin antidiuretic (V2) receptor or to mutations in the AQP2 gene that codes for the vasopressin-dependent water channel (3, 4). Of 75 families with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus referred to our laboratory in Montreal, 71 families have AVPR2 mutations and four have AQP2 mutations. The AVPR2 gene is located in chromosome region Xq28 and as a consequence males who have an AVPR2 mutation have a phenotype characterized by early dehydration episodes, hypernatremia and hyperthermia as early as the first week of life. The dehydration episodes can be so severe that they lower arterial blood perfusion pressure to a degree that is not sufficient

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Goce Spasovski, Raymond Vanholder, Bruno Allolio, Djillali Annane, Steve Ball, Daniel Bichet, Guy Decaux, Wiebke Fenske, Ewout J Hoorn, Carole Ichai, Michael Joannidis, Alain Soupart, Robert Zietse, Maria Haller, Sabine van der Veer, Wim Van Biesen and Evi Nagler

Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/l, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subtle to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients presenting with a range of conditions. Despite this, the management of patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in widely different conditions and the fact that hyponatraemia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and speciality-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. To obtain a common and holistic view, the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), the European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) and the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA–EDTA), represented by European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), have developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on the diagnostic approach and treatment of hyponatraemia as a joint venture of three societies representing specialists with a natural interest in hyponatraemia. In addition to a rigorous approach to methodology and evaluation, we were keen to ensure that the document focused on patient-important outcomes and included utility for clinicians involved in everyday practice.

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Goce Spasovski, Raymond Vanholder, Bruno Allolio, Djillali Annane, Steve Ball, Daniel Bichet, Guy Decaux, Wiebke Fenske, Ewout J Hoorn, Carole Ichai, Michael Joannidis, Alain Soupart, Robert Zietse, Maria Haller, Sabine van der Veer, Wim Van Biesen and Evi Nagler