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Décio L. Eizirik

Abstract. Recent observations suggest that human interleukin-1 (IL-1) causes functional impairment and death of pancreatic B-cells. This action seems to be potentiated by another cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In the present investigation, the effects of recombinant human (r) IL-1 (10,30 and 150 pmol/l), and a combination of rIL-1 and human rTNF (25 μg/l), on islet glucose metabolism were examined in the presence of D-[5-3H] and D-[6-14C) glucose. The utilization of glucose was not affected by rIL-1 or rIL-1 plus rTNF. However, rIL-1 induced a 40% decrease in glucose oxidation, which was further potentiated by the addition of rTNF. rTNF alone did not impair islet glucose utilization or oxidation. It is concluded that rIL-1 induces a perturbation of islet glucose handling, mainly at the mitochondrial level. This impairment in the oxidative metabolism of glucose is further increased by the addition of rTNF.

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Décio L Eizirik, Anna Skottner, and Claes Hellerström

Eizirik DL, Skottner A, Hellerström C. Insulin-like growth factor I does not inhibit insulin secretion in adult human pancreatic islets in tissue culture. Eur J Endocrinol 1995;133:248–50. ISSN 0804–4643

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been found to increase insulin sensitivity and suppress insulin secretion, thereby having a potential interest as a therapeutic agent for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct actions of IGF-I (400 ng/ml) on human pancreatic islets, or on rat pancreatic islets, during a 48 h period in tissue culture. Insulin-like growth factor I did not affect medium insulin accumulation, DNA or insulin content or short-term glucose-induced insulin release of human islets. However, in rat islets the peptide induced a significant decrease in the insulin increase ratio in response to 16.7 mmol/l glucose. In conclusion, the present data suggest that IGF-I does not directly affect the function of human pancreatic β-cells If this in vitro data can be extrapolated to the in vivo situation, it suggests that the observed inhibitory effects of IGF-I on serum insulin levels may be secondary to peripheral effects of the peptide.

Décio L Eizirik, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Biomedicum, PO Box 571, S-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden

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Jonàs Juan-Mateu, Olatz Villate, and Décio L Eizirik

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which pancreatic β cells are killed by infiltrating immune cells and by cytokines released by these cells. This takes place in the context of a dysregulated dialogue between invading immune cells and target β cells, but the intracellular signals that decide β cell fate remain to be clarified. Alternative splicing (AS) is a complex post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism affecting gene expression. It regulates the inclusion/exclusion of exons into mature mRNAs, allowing individual genes to produce multiple protein isoforms that expand the proteome diversity. Functionally related transcript populations are co-ordinately spliced by master splicing factors, defining regulatory networks that allow cells to rapidly adapt their transcriptome in response to intra and extracellular cues. There is a growing interest in the role of AS in autoimmune diseases, but little is known regarding its role in T1D. In this review, we discuss recent findings suggesting that splicing events occurring in both immune and pancreatic β cells contribute to the pathogenesis of T1D. Splicing switches in T cells and in lymph node stromal cells are involved in the modulation of the immune response against β cells, while β cells exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines activate complex splicing networks that modulate β cell viability, expression of neoantigens and susceptibility to immune-induced stress. Unveiling the role of AS in β cell functional loss and death will increase our understanding of T1D pathogenesis and may open new avenues for disease prevention and therapy.

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Décio L. Eizirik, Stellan Sandler, Olle Korsgren, Leif Jansson, and Arne Andersson

Abstract.

The functional responses of the pancreatic B-cells after cytotoxic damage are still largely unknown. Using in vitro models to clarify this issue, we have recently observed a preferential reduction of glucose-stimulated insulin production and release in mouse pancreatic islets maintained in culture after in vitro exposure to streptozotocin. In order to evaluate the relevance of these findings in vivo, two sets of experiments were performed. First, mouse pancreatic islets were exposed in vitro to 2.2 mmol/l streptozotocin or vehicle alone, cultured for 6 days, and finally grafted under the kidney capsule of normoglycemic nude mice. Two weeks after transplantation there was no difference in the total DNA and insulin content between the two groups of islet grafts, but the insulin concentration, as expressed per μg DNA, was decreased by 40% in the streptozotocin-treated islets. The insulin release of the grafts, during perfusion of the graft-bearing kidney in situ with 16.7 mmol/l glucose was diminished in the streptozotocin group, whilst perfusion with 16.7 mmol/l glucose plus 5 mmol/l theophylline was able partially to counteract the reduction in insulin release. In the second set of experiments, NMRI mice were injected iv with 160 mg/kg streptozotocin or vehicle alone, and their islets isolated 15 min after the injections. After 6 days in culture, there was no decrease in DNA, glucagon and somatostatin contents, but the insulin content was decreased by 40% in the streptozotocin exposed islets. These islets also showed a 60% decrease in the insulin response to glucose, which was partly counteracted by incubation with 16.7 mmol/1 glucose plus 5 mmol/l theophylline. These observations suggest that a defective response to glucose, in conjunction with a better response to non-nutrient secretagogues, may be a common property of pancreatic islets following toxin-induced disturbances.

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Maria Lytrivi, Valérie Senée, Paraskevi Salpea, Federica Fantuzzi, Anne Philippi, Baroj Abdulkarim, Toshiaki Sawatani, Sandra Marín-Cañas, Nathalie Pachera, Anne Degavre, Pratibha Singh, Céline Derbois, Doris Lechner, Laurence Ladrière, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve, Cristina Cosentino, Lorella Marselli, Jean-François Deleuze, Piero Marchetti, Décio L Eizirik, Marc Nicolino, Annabelle Chaussenot, Cécile Julier, and Miriam Cnop

Objective

DNAJC3, also known as P58IPK, is an Hsp40 family member that interacts with and inhibits PKR-like ER-localized eIF2α kinase (PERK). Dnajc3 deficiency in mice causes pancreatic β-cell loss and diabetes. Loss-of-function mutations in DNAJC3 cause early-onset diabetes and multisystemic neurodegeneration. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic cause of early-onset syndromic diabetes in two unrelated patients, and elucidate the mechanisms of β-cell failure in this syndrome.

Methods

Whole exome sequencing was performed and identified variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. DNAJC3 was silenced by RNAi in INS-1E cells, primary rat β-cells, human islets, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived β-cells. β-cell function and apoptosis were assessed, and potential mediators of apoptosis examined.

Results

The two patients presented with juvenile-onset diabetes, short stature, hypothyroidism, neurodegeneration, facial dysmorphism, hypoacusis, microcephaly and skeletal bone deformities. They were heterozygous compound and homozygous for novel loss-of-function mutations in DNAJC3. DNAJC3 silencing did not impair insulin content or secretion. Instead, the knockdown induced rat and human β-cell apoptosis and further sensitized cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress, triggering mitochondrial apoptosis via the pro-apoptototic Bcl-2 proteins BIM and PUMA.

Conclusions

This report confirms previously described features and expands the clinical spectrum of syndromic DNAJC3 diabetes, one of the five monogenic forms of diabetes pertaining to the PERK pathway of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. DNAJC3 deficiency may lead to β-cell loss through BIM- and PUMA-dependent activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.