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Mirella Hage, Clément Janot, Sylvie Salenave, Philippe Chanson, and Peter Kamenický

To gain more insight on the pathogenesis of somatotroph pituitary adenomas, recent studies have focused on a subgroup of patients with acromegaly displaying a paradoxical growth hormone (GH) response during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The paradoxical rise of GH after oral glucose intake occurs in about one-third of acromegaly patients and has been pathogenetically linked, by analogy to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, to the ectopic expression of GIP receptor (GIPR) in somatotroph adenoma cells. GIPR-expressing adenomas are negative for activating GNAS gene mutations and display distinct cytogenetic and DNA methylation profiles, highlighting their unique molecular pathogenesis. Acromegaly patients with a paradoxical GH response pattern seem to display higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and harbour smaller adenomas that are more often of the densely granulated phenotype. They seem also to show a better response to somatostatin receptor ligands. In addition, persistent paradoxical GH response after surgery may be a biological marker of the residual disease postoperatively. Targeted therapy to antagonize GIP receptor on GIPR-expressing somatotroph adenomas could be a new treatment approach for acromegaly patients with a paradoxical pattern of GH response to OGTT.