Pancreatic and gut hormone responses to oral glucose, and insulin sensitivity were studied in cystic fibrosis patients with normal (N= 14), impaired (N=4), and diabetic (N= 12) glucose tolerance, and in 10 control subjects, and beta cell responses to oral glucose and intravenous glucagon were compared. Compared to control subjects, initial insulin and C-peptide responses to oral glucose were lower in all patient groups, and decreased with decreasing glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired and diabetic glucose tolerance was lower than in control subjects. The 6 min post-glucagon C-peptide concentration was positively correlated with the initial insulin response to oral glucose. Fasting levels of pancreatic polypeptide, pancreatic glucagon, total glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide were normal in all patient groups. Following oral glucose, pancreatic polypeptide responses were absent in all patients, suppressibility of pancreatic glucagon secretion was increasingly impaired with decreasing glucose tolerance, and gut hormone levels were normal. In conclusion, at cystic fibrosis (a) insulin secretion is impaired even when glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are within the normal range, (b) the glucagon test gives valid estimates of residual beta cell function, (c) pancreatic polypeptide response to oral glucose is absent, (d) glucagon suppressibility decreases with decreasing glucose tolerance, and (e) the enteroinsular axis is intact.
Susanne Lanng, Birger Thorsteinsson, Michael E Røder, Cathrine Ørskov, Jens J Holst, Jørn Nerup and Christian Koch
Aliya Aziz Khan, Christian Koch, Stanislaus Hendrikus Maria Van Uum, Jean Patrice Baillargeon, Jens Bollerslev, Maria Luisa Brandi, Claudio Marcocci, Lars Rejnmark, Rene Rizzoli, M. Zakarea Shrayyef, Rajesh V Thakker, Bulent O Yildiz and Bart Clarke
Purpose: To provide practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism in adults
Methods: Key questions pertaining to the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism were addressed following a literature review. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using keywords “hypoparathyroidism, diagnosis, treatment, calcium, PTH, calcidiol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy”. Only English language papers involving humans were included. We excluded letters, reviews and editorials. The quality of evidence was evaluated based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. These standards of care for hypoparathyroidism have been endorsed by the Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Results: Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disease characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and a low or inappropriately normal serum parathyroid hormone level (PTH). The majority of cases are post surgical (75%) with nonsurgical causes accounting for the remaining 25% of cases. A careful review is required to determine the etiology of the hypoparathyroidism in individuals with nonsurgical disease. Hypoparathyroidism is associated with significant morbidity and poor quality of life. Treatment requires close monitoring as well as patient education. Conventional therapy with calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogues is effective in improving serum calcium as well as in controlling the symptoms of hypocalcemia.
Parathyroid hormone replacement is of value in lowering the doses of calcium and active vitamin D analogues required and may be of value in lowering long term complications of hypoparathyroidism. This manuscript addresses acute and chronic management of hypoparathyroidism in adults.
Main conclusions; Hypoparathyroidism requires careful evaluation and pharmacologic intervention in order to improve serum calcium and control the symptoms of hypocalcemia. Frequent laboratory monitoring of the biochemical profile and patient education is essential to achieving optimal control of serum calcium.