Caroline Barner, Maria Petersson, Britt Edén Engström and Charlotte Höybye
The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect on insulin sensitivity and body composition of combination therapy with GH and IGF1 in adults with GH deficiency (GHD) and diabetes.
Design, patients and methods
A 6-month randomised placebo-controlled pilot study. Fourteen adults with GHD and type 2 diabetes were included. All received rhGH (0.15 mg/day for 1 month and 0.3 mg/day for 5 months) and were randomised to rhIGF1 (15 μg/kg per day for 1 month and 30 μg/kg per day for 5 months) or placebo. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp and body composition by computed tomography of abdominal and thigh fat, as well as bioimpedance.
Twelve patients completed the study. They were overweight and obese; at baseline, insulin sensitivity (M-value) was low. IGF1 and IGF1 SDS increased in both groups, with the highest increase in the GH and IGF1 group. Positive changes in M-value by +1.4 mg/kg per min, in subcutaneous abdominal fat by −60.5 ml and in fat-free mass by +4.4% were seen in the GH and IGF1 group. Corresponding values in the GH and placebo-treated group were −1.5 mg/kg per min, +23 ml and −0.04% respectively (P=0.02, P=0.04 and P=0.03 for delta values between groups). No safety issues occurred.
Combined GH and IGF1 treatment resulted in positive, but rather small effects, and might be a treatment option in a few selected patients.
Charlotte Hoybye, Peter Jönsson, John P Monson, Maria Kołtowska-Häggström, Václav Hána, Mitchell Geffner and Roger Abs
The impact of the aetiology of childhood-onset GH deficiency (CO-GHD) on the clinical presentation during adulthood and the response to GH replacement has been poorly defined. Our study aims to characterize CO-GHD in adults due to different aetiologies and evaluate the effect of 2 years of GH replacement therapy.
Design and methods
Data from 353 adults with CO-GHD from Pfizer International Metabolic Database KIMS were retrospectively grouped according to GHD aetiology: non-organic disorder (n=147), organic pituitary disease (n=159), and brain tumour (n=47). Extent of pituitary dysfunction, IGF-I concentration, lipid concentrations and quality-of-life (QoL) were assessed at baseline and after 2 years of GH replacement.
GHD was diagnosed at a later age in the organic pituitary group than in the other groups, resulting in a shorter duration of GH treatment during childhood. However, the final height was greater in the organic pituitary group. Panhypopituitarism was most common in the non-organic disorder and in the organic pituitary groups, while isolated GHD was more prominent in the brain tumour group. Serum IGF-I levels were the lowest in the non-organic group. QoL was the poorest in the brain tumour group. Lipid profile and QoL improved significantly during GH replacement.
The adverse consequences of CO-GHD in adulthood vary between aetiologies, but improve similarly with GH treatment. It is, therefore, important to consider retesting all patients with CO-GHD in early adulthood and, if persistent severe GHD is confirmed, recommence GH replacement.
Oskar Ragnarsson, Charlotte Höybye, Peter J Jönsson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Beverly M K Biller and Maria Kołtowska-Häggström
Cushing's disease (CD) and non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) are rare in paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe long-term consequences in adults with GH deficiency (GHD) treated for CD or NFPA during childhood.
Design, patients and methods
This was a retrospective analysis of data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database). Background characteristics, anthropometry and comorbidity were studied in 47 patients diagnosed with childhood-onset (CO)-CD and 62 patients with CO-NFPA. Data from 100 ACTH-sufficient patients with CO-idiopathic hypopituitarism (CO-Idio) were used for comparison. Cardiovascular risk profile was analysed at baseline and at 1 year on GH treatment in a subgroup of patients (17 CO-CD, 24 CO-NFPA and 55 CO-Idio) not receiving GH treatment at study entry.
The median age at diagnosis of pituitary tumour was 14.0 years (range 10–17) in patients with CO-CD and 13.7 years (range 8–17) in CO-NFPA. In addition to GHD, 41% of patients with CO-CD had three or four other pituitary hormone deficiencies compared with 78% of patients with CO-NFPA (P<0.001). Eighty-nine per cent of patients with CO-CD had height SDS lower than 0 compared with 61% of patients with CO-NFPA (P=0.002). Hypertension was more common in CO-CD compared with CO-Idio (23 vs 9%, P=0.018). At 1 year on GH treatment, total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased significantly in CO-CD but not in CO-NFPA.
Adult patients with GHD following treatment for paediatric CD and NFPA have long-term adverse consequences. Despite more severe hypopituitarism in CO-NFPA, patients with CO-CD have more frequently compromised final stature.
Charlotte Höybye, Oskar Ragnarsson, Peter J Jönsson, Maria Koltowska-Häggström, Peter Trainer, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen and Beverly M K Biller
Patients in remission from Cushing's disease (CD) have many clinical features that are difficult to distinguish from those of concomitant GH deficiency (GHD). In this study, we evaluated the features of GHD in a large cohort of controlled CD patients, and assessed the effect of GH treatment.
Design and methods
Data were obtained from KIMS, the Pfizer International Metabolic Database. A retrospective cross-sectional comparison of background characteristics in unmatched cohorts of patients with CD (n=684, 74% women) and nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA; n=2990, 39% women) was conducted. In addition, a longitudinal evaluation of 3 years of GH replacement in a subset of patients with controlled CD (n=322) and NFPA (n=748) matched for age and gender was performed.
The cross-sectional study showed a significant delay in GHD diagnosis in the CD group, who had a higher prevalence of hypertension, fractures, and diabetes mellitus. In the longitudinal, matched study, the CD group had a better metabolic profile but a poorer quality of life (QoL) at baseline, which was assessed with the disease-specific questionnaire QoL-assessment of GHD in adults. After 3 years of GH treatment (mean dose at 3 years 0.39 mg/day in CD and 0.37 mg/day in NFPA), total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased, while glucose and HbAlc increased. Improvement in QoL was observed, which was greater in the CD group (−6 CD group versus −5 NFPA group, P<0.01).
In untreated GHD, co-morbidities, including impairment of QoL, were more prevalent in controlled CD. Overall, both the groups responded similarly to GH replacement, suggesting that patients with GHD due to CD benefit from GH to the same extent as those with GHD due to NFPA.
Charlotte Höybye, Pia Burman, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Judith Hey-Hadavi, Ferah Aydin, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner and Anders F Mattsson
Clinical observations over time of adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) have indicated a shift in patient characteristics at diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare baseline characteristics of patients diagnosed with adult-onset GHD naive to GH replacement during three study periods (1994–1999 (P1), 2000–2004 (P2), and 2005–2012 (P3)) using the KIMS (Pfizer’s International Metabolic) database.
Data were retrieved for a total of 6069 patients with adult-onset GHD from six countries (Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and UK): P1 (n = 1705), P2 (n = 2397), and P3 (n = 1967).
The proportions of patients with pituitary/hypothalamic tumors and patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies decreased per entry year period, while the proportions with hypertension and diabetes increased. The lag time from diagnosis of pituitary disease to start of GH treatment decreased by 2.9 years over the entry year periods. IGF-1 increased by 0.1 standard deviation score per entry year period. Maximum GH following various stimulation tests, BMI, and waist circumference increased. The use of radiotherapy, glucocorticoid replacement doses, and the proportion of women >50 years on estrogen replacement therapy decreased. The effects of 1 year of GH replacement were similar over the entry year periods despite changes in the patients’ baseline characteristics. An expected increase in fasting blood glucose was seen after 1 year of GH treatment.
The degree of confirmed GHD became less pronounced and more patients with co-morbidities and diabetes were considered for GH replacement therapy, possibly reflecting increased knowledge and confidence in GH therapy gained with time.
Jens Sandahl Christiansen, Philippe F Backeljauw, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret C S Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Pierre Chatelain, Catherine S Choong, David R Clemmons, Laurie E Cohen, Pinchas Cohen, Jan Frystyk, Adda Grimberg, Yukihiro Hasegawa, Morey W Haymond, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Jeff M P Holly, Reiko Horikawa, Charlotte Höybye, Jens Otto L Jorgensen, Gudmundur Johannsson, Anders Juul, Laurence Katznelson, John J Kopchick, K O Lee, Kuk-Wha Lee, Xiaoping Luo, Shlomo Melmed, Bradley S Miller, Madhusmita Misra, Vera Popovic, Ron G Rosenfeld, Judith Ross, Richard J Ross, Paul Saenger, Christian J Strasburger, Michael O Thorner, Haim Werner and Kevin Yuen
The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH).
A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry.
Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues.
Following plenary presentations summarizing the literature, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. Attendees reconvened after each breakout session to share group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a draft document that was discussed and revised in an open forum on the concluding day. This was edited further and then circulated to attendees from academic institutions for review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies did not participate in the planning, writing, or in the discussions and text revision on the final day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors.
LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Better methods to assess adherence must be developed and validated. Long-term surveillance registries that include assessment of efficacy, cost-benefit, disease burden, quality of life, and safety are essential for understanding the impact of sustained exposure to LAGH preparations.
Gudmundur Johannsson, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Ida Holme Håkonsson, Henrik Biering, Patrice Rodien, Shigeyuki Tahara, Andrew Toogood, Michael Højby Rasmussen and the REAL 2 Study Group
Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin®. Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed.
26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (Nbib2382939).
Male or female patients aged 18–79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan (n = 61) or once-daily Norditropin (n = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen. Both treatments were dose titrated for 8 weeks to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) levels within the normal range, and then administered at a fixed dose. Outcome measures were adverse events (AEs), including injection site reactions; occurrence of anti-somapacitan/anti-GH antibodies and change in treatment satisfaction, assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9).
Mean IGF-I SDS remained between 0 and 2 SDS throughout the trial in both groups. AEs were mostly mild or moderate and transient in nature. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis, headache and fatigue in both groups. More than 1500 somapacitan injections were administered and no clinically significant injection site reactions were reported. No anti-somapacitan or anti-GH antibodies were detected. The TSQM-9 score for convenience increased significantly more with somapacitan vs Norditropin (P = 0.0171).
In this 26-week trial in patients with AGHD, somapacitan was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Once-weekly somapacitan was reported to be more convenient than once-daily Norditropin.
Ann McCormack, Olaf M Dekkers, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman and ESE survey collaborators
To collect outcome data in a large cohort of patients with aggressive pituitary tumours (APT)/carcinomas (PC) and specifically report effects of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment.
Electronic survey to ESE members Dec 2015–Nov 2016.
Reports on 166 patients (40 PC, 125 APT, 1 unclassified) were obtained. Median age at diagnosis was 43 (range 4–79) years. 69% of the tumours were clinically functioning, and the most frequent immunohistochemical subtype were corticotroph tumours (45%). Ki-67 index did not distinguish APT from PC, median 7% and 10% respectively. TMZ was first-line chemotherapy in 157 patients. At the end of the treatment (median 9 cycles), radiological evaluation showed complete response (CR) in 6%, partial response (PR) in 31%, stable disease (SD) in 33% and progressive disease in 30%. Response was more frequent in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy and TMZ. CR was seen only in patients with low MGMT expression. Clinically functioning tumours were more likely to respond than non-functioning tumours, independent of MGMT status. Of patients with CR, PR and SD, 25, 40 and 48% respectively progressed after a median of 12-month follow-up. Other oncological drugs given as primary treatment and to TMZ failures resulted in PR in 20%.
This survey confirms that TMZ is established as first-line chemotherapeutic treatment of APT/PC. Clinically functioning tumours, low MGMT and concurrent radiotherapy were associated with a better response. The limited long-term effect of TMZ and the poor efficacy of other drugs highlight the need to identify additional effective therapies.