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Salvatore Minisola, Luciano Colangelo, Cristiana Cipriani, Jessica Pepe, Dana Paulina Cook and Chantal Mathieu

Few topics have elicited more emotion than the issue of screening for vitamin D status and the discussion on the need for global supplementation with vitamin D metabolites. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the USPSTF posted draft research plan with the aim of making an update recommendations statement, possibly next year. Here, we discuss two different viewpoints on screening for vitamin D status: for and against. In the literature there are scientifically sound opinions supporting pro and cons positions. However, we believe that the best way to definitively elucidate this issue is the implementation of a randomized controlled trial evaluating clinical outcomes or harms in persons screened versus those not screened for vitamin D deficiency. The feasibility of such a trial is probably questionable owing to uncertainties still present concerning threshold for vitamin D sufficiency and end points (that is, for example, improved bone mineral density, reduced risk of falls and so on) to be reached.

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Giovanna Muscogiuri, Joanna Mitri, Chantal Mathieu, Klaus Badenhoop, Gonca Tamer, Francesco Orio, Teresa Mezza, Reinhold Vieth, Annamaria Colao and Anastassios Pittas


It has been suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases, Addison's disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this review, we debate the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of endocrine diseases.


Narrative overview of the literature synthesizing the current evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases, hand searches and authoritative texts.


Evidence from basic science supports a role for vitamin D in many endocrine conditions. In humans, inverse relationships have been reported not only between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations but also with risk of T1DM, T2DM, and PCOS. There is less evidence for an association with Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroid disease. Vitamin D supplementation may have a role for prevention of T2DM, but the available evidence is not consistent.


Although observational studies support a potential role of vitamin D in endocrine disease, high quality evidence from clinical trials does not exist to establish a place for vitamin D supplementation in optimizing endocrine health. Ongoing randomized controlled trials are expected to provide insights into the efficacy and safety of vitamin D in the management of endocrine disease.

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Katrien Benhalima, Paul Van Crombrugge, Carolien Moyson, Johan Verhaeghe, Sofie Vandeginste, Hilde Verlaenen, Chris Vercammen, Toon Maes, Els Dufraimont, Christophe De Block, Yves Jacquemyn, Farah Mekahli, Katrien De Clippel, Annick Van Den Bruel, Anne Loccufier, Annouschka Laenen, Caro Minschart, Roland Devlieger and Chantal Mathieu


Since many European countries use risk factor screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we aimed to determine the performance of selective screening for GDM based on the 2013 WHO criteria.

Design and methods

Overall, 1811 women received universal screening with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with GDM in 12.5% (n = 231) women based on the 2013 WHO criteria. We retrospectively applied different European selective screening guidelines to this cohort and evaluated the performance of different clinical risk factors to screen for GDM.


By retrospectively applying the English, Irish, French and Dutch guidelines for selective screening, respectively 28.5% (n = 526), 49.7% (n = 916), 48.5% (n = 894) and 50.7% (n = 935) had at least one risk factor, with GDM prevalence of respectively 6.5% (n = 120), 7.9% (n = 146), 8.0% (n = 147) and 8.4% (n = 154). Using maternal age ≥30 and/or BMI ≥25 for screening, positive rate was 69.9% (n = 1288), GDM prevalence 10.2% (n = 188), sensitivity 81.4% (CI: 75.8–86.2%) and specificity 31.8% (CI: 29.5–34.1%). Adding other clinical risk factors did not improve detection. GDM women without risk factors had more neonatal hypoglycemia (14.4 vs 4.0%, P = 0.001) and labor inductions (39.7 vs 25.9%, P = 0.020) than normal-glucose tolerant women, and less cesarean sections than GDM women with risk factors (13.8 vs 31.0%, P = 0.010).


By applying selective screening by European guidelines, about 50% of women would need an OGTT with the lowest number of missed cases (33%) by the Dutch guidelines. Screening with age ≥30 years and/or BMI ≥25, reduced the number of missed cases to 18.6% but 70% would need an OGTT.