Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is characterized by cortisol and in some cases aldosterone deficiency associated with androgen excess. Goals of treatment are to replace deficient hormones and control androgen excess, while avoiding the adverse effects of exogenous glucocorticoid. Over the last 5 years, cohorts of adults with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency from Europe and the United States have been described, allowing us to have a better knowledge of long-term complications of the disease and its treatment. Patients with CAH have increased mortality, morbidity and risk for infertility and metabolic disorders. These comorbidities are due in part to the drawbacks of the currently available glucocorticoid therapy. Consequently, novel therapies are being developed and studied in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. New management strategies in the care of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using fetal sex determination and dexamethasone have also been described, but remain a subject of debate. We focused the present overview on the data published in the last 5 years, concentrating on studies dealing with cardiovascular risk, fertility, treatment and prenatal management in adults with classic CAH to provide the reader with an updated review on this rapidly evolving field of knowledge.
Anne Bachelot, Virginie Grouthier, Carine Courtillot, Jérôme Dulon, and Philippe Touraine
Carine Courtillot, Roselyne Baudoin, Tatiana Du Souich, Lucile Saatdjian, Isabelle Tejedor, Graziella Pinto, Juliane Léger, Michel Polak, Jean-Louis Golmard, Philippe Touraine, and on behalf of the Transition GHD Group
Our aim was to analyze a large cohort of childhood onset GH deficiency (CO-GHD) adults from a unique adult center, in order to analyze their clinical management and to study the metabolic and bone status in relation to GHD and to the other pituitary deficits, and to evaluate these parameters during the long-term follow-up.
Design and methods
Observational retrospective cohort study on 112 consecutive CO-GHD adults transferred to our unit from 1st January 1994 to 1st March 2012. Evaluation of GHD in pediatrics and after transition was conducted following consensus guidelines. Data recorded from pediatric and adult files were GH doses, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging and function, and metabolic and bone status.
Most patients presented with severe CO-GHD (64%) associated with other pituitary deficits (66%). CO-GHD was acquired in 56%, congenital in 33%, and idiopathic in 11% cases. Most patients (83%) stopped GH before transfer, at 16.3 years (median), despite persistence of GHD. Median age at transfer was 19.4 years. After transfer, GHD persisted in 101 patients and four of the 11 resolutive GHD were non idiopathic. IGF1 level was <−2 SDS in 70% of treated patients at transfer and in 34% of them after 3 years of treatment. Follow-up showed improvement in lipid profile and bone mineral density in severely persistent GHD patients under GH therapy. In multivariate analysis, the associated pituitary deficits seemed stronger determinant factors of metabolic and bone status than GHD.
This study raises concern about discontinuation of GH replacement therapy in pediatrics in severely persistent GHD patients and about the often insufficient dose of GH in the treatment of adult patients.
Yempabou Sagna, Carine Courtillot, Joseph Y Drabo, Abdellatif Tazi, Jean Donadieu, Ahmed Idbaih, Fleur Cohen, Zahir Amoura, Julien Haroche, and Philippe Touraine
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasm which can infiltrate any organ or tissue. Endocrine involvement has mostly been described in case reports and small retrospective studies. We aimed to describe endocrine manifestations in a large cohort of adulthood onset (AO) and childhood onset (CO) patients with LCH.
Single-center observational study conducted between January 2002 and December 2017 at Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital (Paris, France), a tertiary care hospital.
Clinical, biological and morphological evaluations of pituitary, gonadal, adrenal and thyroid function evaluations performed in 63 consecutive patients with LCH (AO patients: 40, CO patients: 23). Fifty-eight patients underwent follow-up assessments.
Complete pituitary evaluation was performed in 38/63 patients (60.3%); at least one anterior pituitary dysfunction (APD) was found in 63.2% of them. In this subgroup of patients, the most prevalent deficiencies were diabetes insipidus (DI) and GHD (55.3% each), followed by gonadotropin deficiency (34.2%) and thyrotropin deficiency (23.7%). In the subgroup of the 25 incompletely evaluated patients, we found DI in 44%, GHD in 50%, gonadotropin deficiency in 30.4% and thyrotropin deficiency in 16%. APD was more common in CO patients (P = 0.003) but was not systematically associated with DI regardless of the age of onset. Endocrine dysfunction was most often permanent; moreover, occurrence of new deficiencies has been described during follow-up.
The spectrum of endocrine disorders appears to be large in LCH (both in AO and CO patients) and should be evaluated carefully at diagnosis and during follow-up. APD was not always associated with DI.
Lucie Allard, Frédérique Albarel, Jérôme Bertherat, Philippe Jean Caron, Christine Cortet, Carine Courtillot, Brigitte Delemer, Christel Jublanc, Dominique Maiter, Marie Laure Nunes, Gerald Raverot, Julie Sarfati, Sylvie Salenave, Emmanuelle Corruble, Walid Choucha, and Philippe Chanson
In patients treated with antipsychotics, the rare occurrence of a macroprolactinoma represents a therapeutic challenge.
Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and psychiatric safety of dopamine agonists (DAs) prescribed for large macroprolactinomas in patients with psychosis treated with antipsychotics.
This was a multicenter (France and Belgium) retrospective study.
Eighteen patients treated with antipsychotics were included.
Under DA, median PRL levels decreased from 1247 (117–81 132) to 42 (4–573) ng/mL (P = 0.008), from 3850 (449–38 000) to 141 (60–6000) ng/mL (P = 0.037) and from 1664 (94–9400) to 1215 (48–5640) ng/mL (P = 0.56) when given alone (n = 8), before surgery (n = 7), or after surgery (n = 6), respectively. The prolactinoma median largest diameter decreased by 28% (0–57) in patients under DAs alone (P = 0.02) but did not change when given after surgery. Optic chiasm decompression was achieved in 82% of patients. Five patients (28%) were admitted for psychotic relapse while receiving DAs (but three of them had stopped antipsychotic treatment at that time). A more severe underlying psychosis, rather than the DA treatment itself, may explain such psychiatric admissions.
Even if the DA efficacy on PRL levels and tumor volume in patients with macroprolactinoma under antipsychotic drugs is less impressive than that typically observed, it may be considered satisfactory for half of our patients, particularly in cases of optic chiasm compression. Psychotic exacerbation was unusual in these patients, occurring mostly in those with the most severe psychotic forms. DAs may therefore be used as antitumor treatment for macroprolactinoma in patients with visual involvement, severe headaches or invasion into the skull base who receive antipsychotics.
Bruno Donadille, Alexandra Rousseau, Delphine Zenaty, Sylvie Cabrol, Carine Courtillot, Dinane Samara-Boustani, Sylvie Salenave, Laurence Monnier-Cholley, Catherine Meuleman, Guillaume Jondeau, Laurence Iserin, Lise Duranteau, Laure Cabanes, Nathalie Bourcigaux, Damien Bonnet, Philippe Bouchard, Philippe Chanson, Michel Polak, Philippe Touraine, Yves Lebouc, Jean-Claude Carel, Juliane Léger, and Sophie Christin-Maitre
Congenital cardiovascular malformations and aortic dilatation are frequent in patients with Turner syndrome (TS). The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular findings and management in a large cohort of patients, including children and adults.
We recruited 336 patients with TS from a network of tertiary centers. We reviewed their files, checking for cardiovascular events, cardiac valve abnormalities, and aortic diameters indexed to body surface area (BSA) from magnetic resonance imaging (n=110) or echocardiography (n=300).
Informative cardiovascular data were available for only 233 patients. Vascular surgery was reported in 7.4% of the cohort. The first cause of surgery was aortic coarctation, detected in 6.9% at a median age of 9.5 (range: 0–60) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was detected in 21% at a median age of 20 years (25th–75th percentiles: 15–30). At least one aortic diameter exceeded 32 mm in 12% of the cohort. This was detected at a median age of 19 (7–30) years. When indexed to BSA, at least one aortic diameter exceeded 20 mm/m2 in 39% of the cohort.
Our study shows that cardiovascular monitoring for TS patients is currently insufficient in France. BAV is present at birth, but often remains undiagnosed until later in life. Therefore, improved management in cardiovascular monitoring is required and a more systematic approach should be taken.
Anne Bachelot, Agnès Rouxel, Nathalie Massin, Jérome Dulon, Carine Courtillot, Christine Matuchansky, Yasmina Badachi, Anne Fortin, Bernard Paniel, Fabrice Lecuru, Marie-Aude Lefrère-Belda, Elisabeth Constancis, Elisabeth Thibault, Géri Meduri, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Micheline Misrahi, Frédérique Kuttenn, Philippe Touraine, and on behalf of the POF-GIS Study Group
Premature ovarian failure (POF) encompasses a heterogeneous spectrum of conditions, with phenotypic variability among patients. The etiology of POF remains unknown in most cases. We performed a global phenotyping of POF women with the aim of better orienting attempts at an etiological diagnosis.
Design and methods
We performed a mixed retrospective and prospective study of clinical, biological, histological, morphological, and genetic data relating to 357 consecutive POF patients between 1997 and 2008. The study was conducted at a reproductive endocrinology referral center.
Seventy-six percent of the patients presented with normal puberty and secondary amenorrhea. Family history was present in 14% of the patients, clinical and/or biological autoimmunity in 14.3%. Fifty-six women had a fluctuating form of POF. The presence of follicles was suggested at ultrasonography in 50% of the patients, and observed in 29% at histology; the negative predictive value of the presence of follicles at ultrasonography was 77%. Bone mineral density alterations were found in 58% of the women. Eight patients had X chromosomal abnormalities other than Turner's syndrome, eight other patients evidenced FMR1 pre-mutation. Two other patients had autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 and 1.
A genetic cause of POF was identified in 25 patients, i.e. 7% of the whole cohort. POF etiology remains most often undiscovered. Novel strategies of POF phenotyping are in such content mandatory to improve the rate of POF patients for whom etiology is identified.