OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) inhibits cell growth. Previous reports have suggested the existence of plasma membrane IGFBP-3 receptors that could mediate direct, IGF-independent effects. Thus far, however, the only well-defined putative IGFBP-3 receptor is the type V transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor, a membrane glycoprotein that mediates TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition in selected cells. The aim of the study was to test whether IGFBP-3 and TGF-beta exert short-term effects in an osteosarcoma cell line that produces no IGF but contains type 1 IGF receptors. DESIGN: DNA synthesis and apoptosis in Saos-2/B-10 cells were measured in response to IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3 and TGF-beta2, and to type 1 IGF receptor ligands with poor affinity for IGFBP-3 ([QAYL]-IGF-I and insulin). RESULTS: IGF-I and IGF-II stimulated thymidine incorporation into DNA and suppressed apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with maximal effects at 1 and 3 nM respectively. TGF-beta2 slightly increased thymidine incorporation into DNA but had no effect on apoptosis. IGFBP-3 had no effect by itself. Whereas it blocked the above effects of 1 nmol/l IGF-I, it did not block those of 1 nmol/l [QAYL]-IGF-I or 100 nmol/l insulin. CONCLUSIONS: IGFBP-3 does not affect DNA synthesis or apoptosis in an IGF-independent manner in IGF-responsive osteosarcoma cells. It therefore appears to act essentially by sequestration of IGF.
E Zoidis, M Gosteli-Peter, C Ghirlanda-Keller, L Meinel, J Zapf and C Schmid
OBJECTIVE: X-linked hypophosphatemia, a renal phosphate (Pi)-wasting disorder with defective bone mineralization, is caused by mutations in the PHEX gene (a Pi-regulating gene with homology to endopeptidases on the X chromosome). We wondered whether changes in Phex and neprilysin (NEP) (another member of the family of zinc endopeptidases) mRNA expression could be observed in relation to vitamin D and Pi metabolism during GH- and IGF-I-stimulated growth of hypophysectomized rats. DESIGN: Animals were infused s.c. for 2 days with vehicle, 200 mU (67 microg) GH or 300 microg IGF-I/rat per 24 h. We determined serum osteocalcin and osteocalcin mRNA in bone, Phex mRNA in bone and lungs, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)) and serum Pi levels, and renal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase), of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)-24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase) and of the Na-dependent Pi-cotransporter type I and II (Na(d)Pi-I and -II). RESULTS: As compared with vehicle-treated controls, body weight and tibial epiphyseal width significantly increased in GH- and IGF-I-treated animals. Serum osteocalcin and osteocalcin mRNA levels in bone, Phex mRNA in bone and lungs, serum 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) and renal 1alpha-hydroxylase mRNA rose concomitantly, whereas expression of NEP in lungs was barely affected and renal 24-hydroxylase mRNA decreased. Na(d)Pi-I and -II gene expression in the kidney and serum Pi levels remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a coordinate regulation of Phex mRNA expression in lungs and bone and vitamin D metabolism during GH- and IGF-I-stimulated growth.